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ACCOUNT OF THE 

iNT RODUCTIO ' 

OF TKfi 



COW POX 

iNtO 

INDIA. 



f aiNTBD By M0R03A DAMOTHERJEE Prabhoob^ 
1803* 



(SI r 



X HE following account of the fuccefsful 
iiitrodudtion of the vaccine difeafe into Bom- 
bay, and its diifufion throughout India, is ref- 
pecSfully infcribed to the HONORABLE 
JONATHAN DUNCAN, to whofe humane 
andzealous interpofition, the Indian worldare 
effentially indebted for the bleffings that have 
already marked the progrefs of vaccination, as 
well as for the incalculable benefits that mud 
ultimately arife from it, to every quarter of the 
Eritifli Dominions in Afia. 

By his Very Obdt. Humble Servt, 

^ GEORGE KEIR, 

MED.CHTR.SOC. ^ 

ABERDEEN. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



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ACCOUNT OJ" THE 

INTRO DV Ct 10 N 

OF THf 

COW POX 

INTO 

INDIA. 

^' JL^HE principal objeS in view in colletfting the 
following reports, after tracing from authentic do- 
cuments the hiflory of the introdu(5lion of the difcafc 
into this country, is co enable Gentlemen in the Cotp- 
pany*s fervicc to propagate it in different fitua- 
lions, where they are frequently employed at a 
diftance from Medical men, In doing this, forae 
apology may be neceffary for making ufc of the 
corrcfpondcnce of different Gfendcmen without their 
permiirioni and for omitting to take notice of many 
valuabk^od important letters on this fubje^l, which 
would have encrcafcd the fize of this pamphlet 
beyond th^ limits allotted to it, and could not have 
^nfwered any good purpofe, as the objc<5l is to pre- 
fent to tjie public a ihorc acpoqnc of the introdu£lion 



of the difeafe Into Afia, which at a future period 
may be interefting. 



The Human fpecies, whether in a (late of rude- 
nefs or civilization, may be confidered as inheriting 
the probability of fufFering once in their lives, from 
the influence of certain difeafes, occafionaily loath- 
fome, and frequently fatal. 

How much is confequently due to the man, whofe 
difcoveries confer a blelling on mankind, capable of 
heightening the enjoyments of life,, by fecuring it 
from thofc maladies by which it may be rendered. 
inif<^rable, or extinguished altogether. 

Such has been the late important dlfcovery of 
Dr. Jenner, fo joftly acknowledged by his country, 
and which cannot fail to tranfmit his name to pol- 
terity,as one of the greatelt benefactors of the Hu- 
man race. 

The pcrfeverlng zeal of Dr. Jenner has furmount- 
cd every difficulty, and he now enjoys the h^^arc-fclt 
fatibfadtion of obfcrving, that his endeavours to 
make the world acquainted with the lingular difeafe 
of cow-pox, has been attended with the dt fired 
fuccefs ; and that his dodlrines are as generally re- 
Gcivcd, as the importance of the Tub je«5l defer ves. 

There 



C 7 ] 

- There is no country where the fmall-pox proves 
lb great a fcourge as it docs in Indiaj owing to 
the climate, as well as the prejudices of the inha- 
bitants. In Europe, much had been accomplilhed 
by attention to a falutary regimen; here, the unhap-- 
py fufferer is often deprived of the chance there 
might be of his deriving benefit, from either re- 
gimen, or medical treatment. 

The beneficial confequences to be expelled from 
the communication of fo mild a difcafe as the cow- 
pox, in fubftitution of one fo generally loathfome 
and fatal to all ranks of men in India, are great 
beyond all calculation. 

The vaccine difeafe was Introduced at Bombay 
in June' 1802, and for fome months pad it has 
been difleminated throughout the Peninfula of India, 
the ifland of Ceylon, Bengal, the Malabar pro- 
vinces, and elfewhere; this affords a very facisfadory 
proof of the benevolent zeal of the medical facul- 
ty in India, and is certainly highly honourable to 
them. The difficulties which they daily experience 
at many ftations, in procuring fubjefts for continu- 
ing the difeafe, can fcarccly be judged of by Prac- 
titioners in Europe. Wedded to cuflom, and the 
ufages of their Anceftors^ the Natives of India 

view 



t « J 

view with diflruft and apprchcnfion every innoo 
vation, and few of them can yet be perfuaded thai 
a difcafc fo mild and harmlcfs as the vaccine af- 
fpCtiony can fhield their offspring from fo ferious 
a>nd deplorable a calamity as the variolous contagion. 

The account of Dr. JcnntT*s difcovery foon 
reached India, and excited in the mind o( every 
Profcfllonal man, the mofl: lively anxiety to be 
poffciTed of an agent reputed fo harmlcfs, and ca« 
pabic of fecuring mankind againit the Small Pox. 

It is very probable however, that the zeal and 
ciTorts of medical men might have been unavailing^ 
had not the inEuence of Government been intcr- 
pofed to forward their endeavours; this acknow- 
Itdgemerit more particularly applies to the Ho^ 
norable Jonathan Duncan Governor of Bombay^ 
He was early imprefied with a juft fenfe of the value 
of extending vaccination to India, and he judged 
that the mofl likely way to fecure the fpeedy com« 
pletion of fo defirable an object, would be to in- 
tereil His Majefries Minifter at Condantinople, to 
afford his co-operation, by direding virus to be 
forwarded from time to time for Bombay, by the 
way of Bagdad and BulTorah. The followhng 
correfpondencc on this interefting fubjecl will 
{hew how much we owe to Lord Elgin, and Mr, 
Duncan. ExtraSf 



E § \ 

Mxtra^i of a Letter from the Honorahle J, Duucaiti 
' to His Eiccellency th^ Right Honorable, the Earl of 

Elgin, dated Bombay, March 2^th 1801. 

" I beg leave to avail myfelfof this opportuni- 
ty to requell your Lordfhip's kind attention to the 
accompanying Extrafl of my letter of this date, to 
Mr. Jones the Refident at Bagdad, and to folicic 
the favor of your caufing to be tranfmicted to that 
Genderhan, in one or two phials, and an equal 
number to mc dired to this place, fome of the frefh- 
cft and bed matter of the cow-pox, that may be 
procurable at Conftantinople or in the neighbour- 
hood, rcfpefling which, the Hon'ble Mr. Bruce 
willalfol believe, have written to your Lordfhip^ 
and I need only add that if we may rely on the ac- 
counts publilhed of the mild nature of the cow-pox^ 
Europic cannot beftow a greater favor on India^, 
than by the fubftitution of this benign contagious 
matter, to the very deflrudlive one, that now an^* 
nually carries off fo many of our inhabitants," 



ExtraB of a Letter from the Honorahle J, Duncan^ 
to H, Jones Efq, Refident at Bagdad dated Bom^ 
bayy 2^th March 1801. 

" If you could procure from Condantinople 
fomc of the matter of the cow-pox, fo carefully pu: 

up 



[ 10 ] 

up in phials, or any other fccure method, as to 
reach Bombay in a (late fit to give the infcdlion^ 
it woukl be rendering great benefit to India, 
where thoiifands now annually fall vidims to the 
ordinary kind. Perhaps to lecure the matter ar« 
riving here in a proper rtate, it may be expedient 
to have it renewed by inoculation at Bagdad: — but 
of this Mr. Short the Phyfician with you, muft be 
the beQ js-Jdge. Mean while, in aid of the endea- 
vours which I doubt not you will make to fo good 
an end as the prcfent; I have requeued the favor of 
his Excellency Lord Elgin, to countenance and 
affi[l whatever means, on your application, the Me- 
dical Gendemen at Conftantinople may judge the 
bcfl adapted to tlie fecuring of its tranlmiflion in the 
f>efhtft pradicabie ftate. 

I need not fuggeft that the matter of the cow- 
porw fnould not b^ tumigaredi as that dtftroys its 
virLUCj or rifles doing fo, as was experienced lately, 
in the indance of fome that the Hon'bie Mr. Bruce 
brought wich him to Bombay. 

'£xfratl cf a Letter frcm His Excellincy the Fight 
Ihnble tJie Earl of EAgin^ lo the Hcn'bk Jona- 
than DunCiVi fjq. djted ^ifi July iSoi. 

] liavc t!iis mDiiifnt the honor of receiving 
your Letters oi the and 25th tf March, and 

tho' 



C " 3 

Cho' it is ImpofTible for me to anfwer them by the 
prefcnc occafion; yet I am anxious to aiTure you, 
without delay, of their arrival. 1 lhall pay early at- 
tention to your wi(he3 — and in a particular manner 
to your defire of receiving the cow-pox m:^-tcer. 
The difficulty of conveying the infcftion, rendered 
abortive feveral attempts 1 have made this fpring, 
to bring it here. But as I have direded, that fome 
fhould be fencto me from Vienna by every poff, I 
hope to have ic in my povver to con vey to you iome 
€re long, 

E^'tracl of a Letter from Lcrd ^-Ig^n^ to the Honble 
Jonathan Dune an ^ dated '6th Sept, j 3oi. 
I have the honor to inclofe you one quill, con- 
taining vaccine marrer, I do this merely, in die vicv/ , 
of attempting every thing— Hut my great hopcs^ 
arj thro' Mr. Maneilvj — I had fcnt him the rnartcr 
lad year which failed; — But have now faiily trila- 
blifhed it at Confrantinoi.^k-', and the bell proof I 
can offer of its mildncfs is. that 1 have ip.ocul.ued 
my child, on the 6ch of Septembtr, cho* only born 
on the 3 I ft of Augult. 

I have had the marre- put up by Dr. Scott, a 
very able Phyrici;jn in rny family, in various fnaj^es, 
and with every polfible degree of care^— this I h:^ve 



[ 12 3 

fcnf to Mr. Manefty, with directions for Km to 
proceed in his experiments with thefe lancets &c. 
until the difeafe takes at BufTorahi then to fend 
forward to you, what remains of them, together with 
fome frefh matter from Bufforah, with a Book 
lately pubiifhed at Vienna, on the hidory and nature 
of the vaccine. 

I fincerely trufl, that thefe means will be effedlu- 
al in extending fo innapreciable a benefit, to your 
part of the world. 

Extra^f of a Letter from the Hon'hle Jonathan Dun-- 
can EJq, to His Excellency the Earl of Elgin ^ da^ 
ted Bombay ^th February 1802. 
*^ I have the honor to acknowledge your letter 
of the 8th of September refpedting the vaccine mat- 
ter, which I received, but on the trial, it has failed, 
as was indeed, to be apprehended from the length 
of its pafTage, fince it did not reach me till the 3 id 
Decemberi — I think it very probable, that the me- 
thod your Excellency has propofcd to Mr. Ma- 
nefty, may prove more fuccefsful, and in that cafe 
your Excellency will indeed have proved the me- 
dium of conferring an ineilimablc benefit on India.'' 

It was not however by fca only that cfForts were 
piade to get the cow-pox to India, as the following 

letter 



t '3 ] 

letter from the Medical Board, and the recomm*-!!- 
dation of Government to the Court of Dirc-tora 
will fhow. 

Copy of a Letter from the Medical Board, datei 
Bombay, Atigufi ^ih 1801, to the lionhk % 
Dune an, ^c. ifc, 
HoN*BLE Sir, 

The late very happy difcovery that the difeafc 
produced by inoculation from the cow-pox, fe- 
cures the human body, ever afcerwards, froai ciie 
fmall, akhough of great importance in Europe, 
jlioukl we imagine, beoflliii more conlequence ia 
this country. 

The fmall-pox from inoculation, is certainly here, 
a much more dangerous difeafe than in Europe; 
for a greater proportion die of it, and of thofe who 
cfcape, great numbers fufFer feverely from it. We 
think that one third of thofc who get the difeafe 
naturally, are deftroyed by it; at times indeed, ic 
appears under a much milder form, but occafional- 
Jy, the mortality from it is fiiil more deplorable. 
From what we have faid, it will be evideiu that a 
difeafe like the cow-pox, would be a great blciTing 
to this country, and we have reafon to believe 
^hac the natives from thcii prejudices in favour of 

the 



[ 14 ] 

(he cow, wouH generally communicate it to theif 
children; *hic]i will never be the cafe with regard 
to the fmall-pox. 

Several attempts have already been made to 
bnng the cow-pox to India, but without efFcdl, for 
the maitcr on its arrival here, has not been found 
to communicate the difeafe: we are under particu- 
lar obligations on thisfubjefl, to Mr. Barclay Apo- 
thecary of London, who got, unfoiicired, the mat- 
ter of cow-pox, and fent it to Portfmouth to Mr. 
Forbes, Surgeon of the Lord Hawkcfoury; beg- 
ging of him to inoculate with it during the pafiage, 
and by that means to carry it to India, in a recent 
fiate: Mr. Forbes on his part was not wanting in 
every attention; for foon after he received it, he 
inoculated feveral perfons on board of the fhip, but 
he was not able in a fingle inftance to produce the 
difeafe. The plan recommended by Mr. Barclay 
feems very judicious, and if a fufficient number of 
people vvho never had the fmall-pox, were fent in a 
fhip, we imagine it could hardly fail of fuccefs, 
perhaps it migliE be proper to lend fomc cows with 
the fair.e intenuon, 

k might alfo be defirable to have the matter of 
cow-pox feni fi'om Conilantiooplc to our Surgeon 

at 



t 's 3 

-at Bagdad, who would inoculate with k, from 
v;hence it might be carried to the Surgeon of Buf- 
forah, and finally with a prolpedl of fuccefs, to this 
place. 

In order to encourage excrdon, it might be jh-o-^' 
per to offer fome reward to the perfon who fbould 
fird bring this difeafc to India. 

The influence that the cow-pox may produce on 
chc happincfsand the life of fo great a fociety of 
mankind, is of fo much importance, that wc can- 
not doubt but your Hon'ble Board will be ready lo 
forward all our wifnes for its introdudion into India, 

W. MOIR. 
H. SCOTT. 

Extras of a Letter from the Ihmrahle the Governor 
in Council of Bombay , to the Honorable the Court 
cfDireSlorsy dated Augujti^tb i8oi. 
Para. 55. We have the honor to enclofe Copy 
of a Letter from the Medical Board relative to the 
vaccine pox, on which we have earneflly to folicit 
your Hon'bk Court's alfiftance for the fecure tranf- 
miflicn of the matter to this country, in the manner 
• fuggefted h f them, or in any other, that may ap^ 
pear to your Hon'ble Court flili more efficacious 
and likely, to fucceed. 



[ '6 ] 

Para. 56. Our Prcfidcnt has written on the 
fame fubje^l, to the Earl of Elgin, and the Rcfi- 
dents at BufTurah and Bagdad, have alfo, been in f- 
trufied by our Secretary to the effecl of the Me- 
dical Board's further recommendations. 

J. A. GRANT, 

Secretary to Gonjernment, 

His Excellency Lord Elgin readily gave every 
fupport to the requeft of ihe Governor of Bombay. 
He dire6lcd vaccine virus to be forwarded froai 
time to time, to Mr. Jones the Hon'ble Company's 
Refident at Bagdad. 

The Surgeon attached to that Refidency Dr. Ja- 
mes Short, was particularly qualified to attend to fo 
intcrefting a fubjed, and early in the year i 802, for- 
tunately fuccecded in producing the true vaccine 
difcafc at Bagdad. 

Dr. Short loft no time in forwarding virus to 
our Surgeon at the Refidency of BufTorah Mr. 
Milne ; who alfo was fortunate in eftablifhing the 
difeafc at that place. 

It was peculiarly lucky that fuch men as Dr. 
Short, and Mr. Milne, had the management of the 
difeafc at Bagdad and Bufibra, and the public owe 

thefc 



[ 17 ] 

fhefe Gentlemen no tri filing obligation for theif 
care and zeal in preferving the difcafe under many 
very difcouraging circumftances. 

Mr. Milne was aware of the importance of fpeedi- 
ly fending on matter for Bombay, which he did by i ' 
every opportunity that offered. For fome time 
however we were not more fortunate with the vari- 
ous fupplies we received fiom Mr. Milne, than 
mih feveral packages which were at different pe*» 
riods fent to us from Europe, I y fea conveyances. 

One of the mod important fteps that the vaccine 
matter made was from Conftantinople to Bagdad^ 
altho' the diftance is a journey of from 25 to 30 
days. From Bagdad to Bufforah the diftance is 
much fliorter, fo that Mr, Milne received it in a few 
days, and was lefs likely to fail in fuccecding with ic© 

The next difficult ftep, perhaps the moft difficult 
of the whole, was to produce it in Bombay, after a 
fea voyage, and after it had been kept for weeks 
before we could ufe it. This will account for the 
many failures that we experienced before we were 
fuceefsfuL 

The Recovery left Bufforah late in May^ and as 
she feafon was favorable for making a quick paf-» 



[ '3 1 

fagc, reached Bombay m three weeks. Captnia 
Groube brought from Mr. Milne fupplies of vi- 
rus carefully put up in diuerenc ways^ — On our re- 
ceiving ic, between 20 and 30 fubje^bs were inocu- 
lated with the threads impregnated with the virus^ 
in various modes, and by different Surgeons. 

Only one indance of fuccefs occurred in all thofc 
inoculated. Anna Dufthall, the Child of a female 
fervanc belonging to Captain Hardie, was inocula- 
ted by Dr. Scott on the 14th of June, with many 
others; Anna was about 3 years of age, healthy, 
and certainly never had had the fmail pox. 

She was remarkably good tempered, and to her 
quictnefs and patience in fulFei ing the operation, its 
fuccefs is in fome meafurc to be attributed. 

The puftule beg:in to fliow itfclf about the end of 
the 3d diy, afterwards ilie had flight fymptoms of 
fever, and fome drgrce of fwelling and uneafmcfs 
in the axillary ghmds : thrfe lymptoms gr.ve us 
hopes, and led us to watch the progrefs of the dif- 
eafe v.'ith careful anxiety. On the bih day, the 
pullule was of the proper lize, it was raifcd and Sat, 
and confined of many cells, which on being punc- 
tured, gave out a traniparent fluid. 



This 



[ '9 ] 

■ This circumftance, if any evidence had bft*n ne» 
ceiBry to convince us of the genuine nature of the 
difcafc was deciOve. It was now certain ^hac we 
were in poflciTion of the Cov/-pox, snd that our 
h^rretofore fruitlefs endeavours were crowned whh 
fuccefs. There was only one puftule on the inoculat- 
ed fpot, nor did the child fuffer any material incon- 
venience during the whole progrefs of the complaint. 

On the 22d of June, the 8th day of the difcafe, 
five children were inoculated with virus from cl-.e 
puftule; thefe fubjedts were all aifecled in the fa^pe 
way, and as the local, and conftitutional fyniptoir.s 
were fitnilar in ail of them, every medical nlan v/ho 
examined the pudule, was decidedly of opinion, rr.ac 
the difeafe we had produced Vv'as of a genuine na- 
ture. 

The following Letter was vow pihlifhed hy the Me,*^ 

dical Bo'ird for general informatiGn, 
To The EDITOR of the BOMBAY COU- 
RIER. 

For the fatisfacllon or the public, and the infor- 
mation of profeflional men in India, we beg of yoti 
to publifh the following account of the intr:Kiuction 
of the Cow pox into this place. \Vc have it now 
in our power to commuaicaie the benefit of this 

impo.tariC 



[ 20 ] 

important difcovery to every part of India, perhaps 
to China, and the whole eaftern world. We fhall 
fpare no pains in accomplifhing a purpofe fo defi- 
rabk, by which one of the grcateft evils that has 
afflidled humanity, may be diminiflied in a great de- 
gree, or even extinguilhed altogether. 

In the courfe of the lad twelve monchs, we have 
repeatedly received by fea from England the vac- 
cine matter, with which many children have been 
inoculated to no purpofe. We were not more fuc- 
cefsful with matter which was fent to us diredlly by 
]and from Conftantinople. Fortunately Dr. Short, 
^ Surgeon on this Eftablilhment, refiding at 
Bagdad, produced the difeafe at that place. He 
immediately forwarded the matter to Buflbra, where 
Mr. Milne, the Surgeon of that Refidency, alfo 
fucceeded in infedling a patient with itj — Mr. Milne 
foon afterwards inoculated a number of other chil- 
dren, and he fent the vaccine matter to us by fe- 
veral fhips. Even with this matter, we were for 
a time unfuccefsful, and after thirty or forty trials 
by various methods and by different Surgeons. A 
fortunate inoculation at length produced the vac- 
cine difeafe in Anna Dullhall, who is perhaps the 
firft human being who underwent it in India. This 
child, the daughter of afervant of Captain Hardie, 

is 



r 21 ] 

is about three years of age. She is very healthy, 
and certainly never had the fmall pox. It is necef- 
fary to mention thefe circuaiflances, as from her 
alone the whole of the matter that is about to be 
fenc all over India was at firfl: derived. 

We have received no hiflory of the patients from 
whom it was taken at Bagdad and Buffora, but v/e 
trufl: with confidence, from our knowledge of the 
medical gentlemen at thofe places, that no pains 
have been fpared to make it pafs thro, unexcepii- 
onabie bodies. 

From Anna Dufthall, on the 8th day of her dif- 
eafe, and on the 2id of laft month, leven children 
were inoculated: five of tliofe, who certainly never 
had the fmall-pox, took the infecflion, and have al- 
ready gone thro* nearly the whole courfc of the 
vaccine difeafe. The other two were not infeded, 
but there is fome probability that one of them has 
had the fmall-pox. From the five children that 
were infefled, about thirty more have been inocu- 
lated, and a great number of them no doubt will 
take the difeafe. From thefe lafc we Oiail fejid the 
vaccine matter to the other Prefidencies, to Surat, 
Poona, tec. &c. and care •hali ; e taken tliac none 
(hall be employed, but frooi an uaexceptior.abla 
fource. The 



C " I 

The vaccine difeafe in Anna Dudhall pafled, 
we have faid through its ordinary courfe, as defcri- 
bed by writers on the fubje6t. The pufcule began 
to-fnovv iffeiraboL'!: the third day. During the courfe 
of the fifth and fixth, fhe had flight fymptoms of fe- 
ver, and fbme nneafinefs in the arm-pit of the ino- 
eolatcd fide. The puftule on the 8th day, was of 
the proper fize for that period. It was fiat and rather 
concave, and it confiiled of rnany cells, which on 
being pricked gav'e out a tranfpafent fluid. By the 
tenth day, the inflamed aredia ronnd the puflule was 
extenfjve, and very difl:In6l in fpite of the blacknels 
cf her fldn. She had only a fingle pudule on the 
inoculated part, nor during the whole time did fhe 
faffer any oiaterial inconveniency fforn the cofu- 
plaint. 

All the five children who were inoculated from 
ker had a flmilar train of fymptoms. On two of 
then?,, whofe parents were European, the inflamed 
areola, from the whitenefs of their fkins, was much 
more diflinfl: than it had been on Anna Dufl;halL 

We have thus detailed the progrefs of the fympw 
ton:»s, and vie have no doubt but that this is the 
genuine Cov/-pojc. Some Surgeon:, here who have 
fecn diedilearcin Eusope^aic of the fame opinion. 



C 23 3 

We hope dierefore, that this will tend to quiet thti 
apprchenfion^ of parents, which in fome indanccs 
we find to be very great, and that our experience at 
this place, fo far as it has gone, vvill give confidence 
to pra(5ticioners. Aim oft all the medical men at 
this prefidency have wicnefled this dileafe, many of 
thecn are inoculating for it, nor do we underfiand 
that any diSerence of opinion has arlfen concern- 
ing its nature. 

One teft indeed we want of its genuine na« 
ture, and that is, its power of preventing the vario^"' 
lous infection, to tills teft iz lliall fliortly be put- 
As this lOand does not contain lefs than 150 
thoufand people, fufficient fupplies of children muft 
^rife to keep up the dlfeafe, ev^en without any dc-» 
pendance on Salfette or the neighbouring Continent* 

The Hindoos and Parfees, both here and at Su« 
rat (liew the utmoft dcfire of having their Childreii 
inoculated vv^ith the vaccine difeafe. We (hall in- 
(IrU'fl the Native Praiflicioners ofPhyfic regardijig 
it, but on this part of the fubjed \vc arc not with- 
out apprehenfions. Whoever is fa/Ficlently ac-» 
quainfed with what has bten done in Europe with 
regard to the Cow Pox, is arc that fome foreign 
poifon, fuch as that of the fmall Pox, is spt to be 
mhcd with ir^ when a compound difcsfc ^arifes, <3r 

fome 



[ n ] 

lone other poifbnous matter may be from various 
caijf'^s incroduced, inft^ad of the vaccine virus, 
a difcaf altogether different is produced. The 
hiftory of the Count de Moffet as lately detailed by 
Dr. de Carro affords a moft inflrudtivc leflbn on the 
fubjed. The greateft care therefore fhould be em- 
ployed to warn the Native Pradlitioners, that the 
vaccine matter may be degraded by many caufes, 
and that their ucmoft attention is neceffary to pre- 
vent if. 

We can aflrr-n from our own knowledge, that 
this Governcnent have anxioufly aiTifted our wifhes 
for procuring the vaccine difeafe by the v/ay oi Buf- 
fora. They reprelented to Lord Elgin the impor- 
tance of it to this great fociety of mankind, and- 
they called for the aid of the Rendents of BufTora 
and Bagdad. Doclor de Carro or Vienna, who 
has dillinguiihed hiitifelf fo honourably in this 
career, tranfmitted in the firfl: inftance the vaccine 
matter to Lord Elgin, who feveral times before had 
flicwn us his attention to the fubjecl. By his Lord* 
Clip's orders it wasfent to our Refident at Bagdad, 

and acrain to the Refident at Bufibra. To both 

o 

thofe Gentlemen the public are under great obli- 
gation for the intereft they took in the fubjedt. Fi- 
nally it fell into the hands of Dr. Short and Mr. 
Milne as we hive already faid, nor could ic have 
been more fortunately placed. We 



[ 25 3 

We have been more particular than was necef- 
fary for the medical profefTion, who mu^t be fup- 
poled CO be in pofTcfTion of every fa6l that has oc- 
cured on the fubjed in Europe, but as we fhail 
difperfe the vaccine difeafe very widely, as it will 
effect, and as we hope it will promote, the hap- 
pinefsof every family, we wifh to fatisfy the pub- 
lic at large concerning the fources from which 
we have derived it, and the foundation of our be- 
lief, that it is of a genuine kind. 

WILLIAM MOIR, 
HELEN US SCOTT. 

Bomhay^ July id, 1802. 



The Medical Board impreffed with a jud fenfc 
of the important confequence of the acquificion they 
had made, and anxious to difFufe it throughout In- 
dia, direded virus to be forwarded to Bengal- 
Fort St. George, Ceylon, and to all the other prin- 
cipal Stations every v;eek, until they had the fatis- 
faction of learning that the difeafe was produced 
at Hyderabad, Mafjlipatam, atdifTerenc Stations oc 
the Ifland of Ceylon, andclfewhere. 

It then became unnecelTary to fend virus fi'om 
Bombay, ast fupplies could be got wirh greater 

qiiicknef?. 



t 1 

qiilcknefs, and probability of fucccfs, from Stations 
nearer to thofc parts. 1 he rainy feafon was pro- 
bably unfavourable to the matter's retaining its 
Specific properties for any length of time, altho, 
every precaution was taken to prefcrve it. 

Flattened filver canulas were prepared about an 
inch in length, and the threads carefully foaked in 
the virus, after being pcifcdly dried, v.ere put in- 
to thofe tubes, and the ends fecured with wax. 
Thefe canulas were forwarded by pod, to all the 
principal ftations, until accounts were received as 
1 have faid, that this extraordinary attention was no 
longer necefiary. 

The following communications (hew how ra- 
pidly the difeafe v/as conveyed fromi place to place, 
and afford a proof of the humane attention of the 
Medical Gentlemen at the different Stations. 



Copy of a Letter from Mr, Ure at Hyderabad to 
Dr. Anderjon^ Port St. George, dated ^ugufi i^th, 

3^02. 

Dear SiR, 

I have the plcafing fatisfaflion of informing you 
that wc have at laft fuccecded in getting the Cow- 
pox at Hyderabad, and I nO';v fend you by exprcfs 

fomc 



[ 27 ] 

fome threads well dipped in the vaccine matter, ta- 
ken from the arm of a healthy child who had four dif- 
tinfl puftules, near the place where the matter was 
inferted. This child was inoculated on the i 8th of 
this month with vaccine matter, which was difpatch- 
ed from Bombay to me by Dr. Scott on the i ith 
inftanc. In about eight days hence I fliall fend you 
another fupply of the vaccine matter. I have alfo 
by this exprefs fent fome of it to Dr. Harris ac 
lylafulipatam. 

Copy of a Letter from Colin Rogers Ffq, MedU 
cnl Supsrifitendmt T rincomallie to Dr, AnderJ^n 
Fort St. George dated September this \^th 1802, 
Dear Sir, 

Youmufl long ere this have heard with pleafure 
of the fuccefsfal jntroduilion of the Cow-pox ac 
Trincomallie, where I had fird the good fortune to 
produce ithe difeafe, by inoculation with matter fenc 
from Bombay on the loth of July, by Dr. Hele- 
nas Scott. 

On the nth of Augufl, the day on which this 
matter arrived here, 1 inoculated fix children, out of 
which number one fucceeded in John Sybclie, a 
boy of ten years oldj from liim a facccmon of hib- 
jeds have been inoculated, and in all ihc genuine 

vaccine 



C 28 ] 

vaccine difeafe appeared. It has fincc been pro* 
pagated to the diftricts ofMolative & Jaifnapatam, 
from wticnce it will foon be extended to the coaft. 
As you have not yet fucceeded at Madras, I take 
the liberty to inclofe you fomc cotton threads, im- 
bued with Vaccine matter, taken this day the 9th 
from inoculation, from a child of European parents, 
the puftule on whofc arm furniflied matter for feveq 
children befidcs. 

Every friend to humanity mud widi you fuccefs 
in your endeavours to introduce and difFufe this va- 
luable difeafe, which is proved to be a fafe and mild 
antidote, for that mod loathfome and fatal one the 
fmall pox, which 'tis to be ardently hoped will foon 
be extirpated from this country. 

His Excellency Governor North imprefled v/ith 
the importance of the difcovcry, has prohibited the 
further admifTion of patients into the fmall pox 
Hofpital, which he means to fupprefsac the end of 
the prefent month> when the attention of the Me- 
dical Superintendants and overfeers of that Ella- 
blifhment will be confined to the propagation of 
the vaccine difeafe; thus completing the chain of 
humane and liberal improvements for which His 
JiKCcllency is (o eminently diftinguifncd:*' 

The 



t 89 5 

The f'lccefs of Mr. Rogers, with virus up* 
wards of a month from Bombay, affords a proof as 
well as our fuccefs with that from Buflbrah; that 
the fpecific virtues of the vaccine poifon, is in fomc 
cafes prcferved for a longer period, even in this 
country, than is generally fuppofcd. 

The matter that produced thedifeafe on Ceylon, 
was fcnt in a canula by Dr. Scott, to His Excel- 
lency Governor North, and was received about 
the loth of Auguftj by His Excellency who was at 
that time at Trincommallie. Mr. Rogers after 
inoculating with the virus, was obliged to proceed 
to JafFnapatnam on urgent bufinefs; and on leav- 
ing his ftation, entrufted the care of his vaccinated 
patients to Mr. Gilbert Hall, Surgeon of His Ma* 
jefty's Malay Regiment. 

This Gentleman watched the progrefs of the 
inoculauon, and on the 8th day had the happinefs 
to find, that one of the fubjcifts was affeded with 
flight Fever ; on examination he found a genuine 
vaccine poftule formed, with the ufual local and 
conftitutional fymptoms, necelTary to afford a pcr- 
fefl convidlion, of the patients being affeded v/ith 
the true Cow-pox. 

Mr. Hall immediately ufed every endeavor to 
procure fubjcds for inoculation, but without fnc- 

ccfsi ' 



t 30 ] 

ccfs ; all his attempts to convince the natives of the 
blcffmg of the difcovery, the fafety and mildnefs of 
the dlfeafc, were without cfFedb. As a laft refourcc 
they were tempted with Gold, and by the influence 
of chi$ agent, Mr. Hall procured 12 fubjeds, which 
were fpeedily inoculated from the puftule. 

From thcfe, an abundant fupply of matter was ob- 
tained, and rapidly difleminated throughout the 
ifland. Great merit is certainly due to Mr. Hall, for 
his zeal and perfeverance, in taking advantage of the 
fortunate inoculation of Mr. Rogers. The practice 
of vaccine inoculation foon became general at Cey- 
lon;-*— the faculty there, as well as elfe where, have evin- 
ced uniform 2eal and humanity, altho'at fome (lati- 
ons it has been found difBcult to procure fubjefls for 
fuccelTive inoculations. On the ifland of Ceylon 
however, from the inditution of Small pox Hofpi- 
tals, the natives being accuftomed to the pradlice of 
inoculation, have wifely preferred the vaccine to the 
variolous difeafe. 



Copy of a Lett &r From fV, Prkhard, Efq, Chtngle- 
futy OBohir %ih, 1802, to Dr. Anderjcn^ Fort 
St. Georgia 

It is with real fatisfaclion I forward to you a 
natWs^ -cWki fix years of age, whom 1 inocij]atc4 

on 



t 3« 3 

on the tft inftant, wUh the vaccine roatter you 
favored rae wich, and which from the appearance 
of the child's arm, I have rcafon to hope has taken 
the infedion. 

The firfl: fymptom obfervable was on the fixth 
day after inoculation, when the child complained 
of pain in the axilla, and forenefs where the in- 
cifion was made, fhe had alfo fome fever — cn the 
fevcnth in the morning, the edges were confiderably 
raifcd, and had a gloiTy appearance, with a depref* 
Con in the center, and it has now every other ap- 
pearance of the puftule defcribed by authors who 
have written on the interefting fubje(5l of cow-pox 
inoculation, however fhould 1 in the prefent caic 
be deceived, and fhould it not prove what I fin- 
cercly hope it is, rhe genuine cow-pox, 1 truft you 
will favorably accept my intention. 

The bearer of this is the child's father, who will 
give you any information refpecling the fymptoms 
which may appear from the date of this — I have 
ySil inoculated two children with the matter from 
the puftule, and will inform you of the fuccefs.** 

EyAraSt of a Letter from Mr. Gourlay^ Affijlant 
Surgeon^ dated Tdlicherryy Scpemhr iph iZoz^ 
to Dr. Keir^ Bombay. 

" I arrived here in good time, — the two boys 
you fo carefully inoculated, I v/as happy to find 

during 



[ 3^ 3 

during the paffage were affefled with the difeafe 
in the mofl: faciiraifrory manner, — I have from ihefe 
fubjcs5ls inoculated 23 Children here, and 1 have 
fent the difcafe to Cannanore, Callicut &c. &c, 
&c. fo that the vaccine difeafe may be confidercd 
as introduced into Malabar. 

The natural fmall pox is now raging in the Pro- 
vince, and the natives are anxious for the Cow pox." 

Copy of a Letter from Dr. Meek at Cochin^ to 
Dr. Anderfon Madras^ dated Cochin^ \oth Oc- 
tohevy 1802. 

" Having on the ifl: inftant, received a fupplf 
of vaccine matter on plates of glafs, on Ivory lan- 
cet points, and on thread, from Dr. Keir at Bombay, 
taken on the eighth day after inoculation, the mat- 
ter being exa6lly eight days old when it reached me, 
I inoculated four children from each of the four 
parcels of matter, and I feel peculiar fatisfadion in 
communicating to you that, with eight of the 
twelve, I have fucceedcd in the moft fatisfadory 
manner. 

The difeafe in all, ran its courfe in the ufual way^ 
nor was the attendant fever of fuch moment as to 
occafion the fmalleft uneafinefs or inconvenience 
to cither the parents or children, each punflure 

was 



[ 33 1 

^as followed by a finglc puftule, nor was more to 
be perceived cither on the arms or body. 

Thofe inoculated from the glafs have all fuccccd^ 
cd, but two that vvcrc inoculated from the Ivory Ian* 
cct points, and an equal number from the thread, 
have failed, 

i have this day from the fuccefsful cafes inocii. 
Jated 2 • more; (of which number arc three young 
ladies) I have fent by Tapa}, matter to the fcnior 
Surgeon at Pajlamcottah, and to Mr. Robcrtfon 
Afliftant Surgeon Anjengo, fo that there now re. 
mains but litde doubt of this moft important difco. 
Very and blefllng being foon very generally dilTc* 
minated throughout the Peninfuja, 

Extra^f of a Letter f rem Mr, J. Flay^ to VoSlor dit* 
derjon^ dated Err ode 061 i igtb l8o2, 
" The chara^er and appearance of my Cov> 
pox pudule in every refpc<5t coincide with that of 
the genuine difeafe given us by Dr. Jenner, and 
with the plate In vol. i. Med. and Phyfical Jour» 
nal p. !20 given by the Engraver, flawing the pro- 
grefs of the puflulein the arm of his ovm child, ex- 
cepting that, no vtficle whatever has appeared in any 
one cafe unlci's where the lancet introduced virus; 
and thac the f^abbing nrocefi is fooncr pcrfeded. 



[ 34 ] 

Only three ofthcpcrfons inoculated by me bav€ 
been fenGblc of any diforder of conftirution, and in 
none of them has it occafKDiicd a difeafe requiring 
-any medical relief whatever, nor fcarcely fuch as to 
render a change of diet neceffiry — the three who 
wre indifpofed fay they had flight fever, and this 
happening in the night, I did not obferve it in any 
of them. 

The only fymptom common to all of tl em, bc- 
fides the puftuk, is a flight afFedlion of the axillary 
glands. 

No fymptomatic Fever has fliown itfelf, nor has 
the general conftitution been affeded in any way. 
The fpreading red areola around the veficle has 
been more extcnfive than in the inoculated fmall 
pox, but except when touched, it has given little 
pain, and has always foon difappeared. 

From the difeafe being fo very mikl here, I am 
of opinion that the fubjccl from v/honi Mr. Carnic 
fupplied me \vith matter molt probably had the di- 
feafe in the moft favorable manner, and that too 
much attention cannot be paid to the choofing only 
fuch fubjeds from whom matter is to be taken, as 
have the vaccine in the mildcft pofljble manner. 
Dr. Woodvillc and Fearfon's ^' reports of inocula- 

lion 



I 35 1 

rion for the Co v; pox'* ihew in the firongeft light 
of how great importance to the public it is, that 
maccer for communicating the infection, betaken 
only from ft^ch perfons, as have the difeafe in the 
mod mild way." 

Dr. Dcfborah Surgeon to the Refidency at 
Poonah, having failed in producing the infedion 
^ith virus fent to him at different periods. Govern- 
ment humanely direded that fubjet^s afFcfled with 
the Cow-pox, might be fenc to fecure the inrroduc* 
tion of the difeafc, into the capital of the Maharatta 
empire. The following letter fhov/s the fuccefsre- 
fulting from this meafurc, 

ExtraB of a htter from Charles Defhorah EJq. Sur* 
geon to the Rejidtncy at Poona dated Otl. %oik 
to Dr. Keir. 

The Brsm.In who was fent by Governmenc 
with two children under the vaccine infeclion, arriv- 
ed here on the 15th with one of them, the bringing 
of both wotld have retarded his journey. — He 
reached this place in fjx days according to his en- 
gagemenc, and at the very point of time. 

On the Bram.ins arrival I inoculated feveral chiU 
dren, and I have now the farisradion of informing 

you. 



I 36 ] 

you, that the operations have fucceeded compleatly, 
and that I have to day, the fixth from inoculation- 
inoculated feveral children with the matter from my 
firft patients, fhc Brarnjn has alfo cotpmencecj 
his pradlice in the town of Poona,— I dogbt not of 
his fuccefs, for he appears to have made himfelf 
under your inftrudtions, perfedly mader of the me- 
thod of operating, and of the whole progrefs of the 
infeflion." 

ZxtraSi of a letter from Mr, Hoyef A£lflant Surgeon ^ 
dited Cundapore Out. 20th 1802, to llr. Keir 
Bombay, 

" I wrote you a few lines informing you that the 
Cow-pox has ^uccttditd in three patients. From 
thefe chree 1 have inocuhired 30 more who have hacj 
the difeafc i(j the moft unequivocal manner, and 
v/ithouc any complaint, except flight pain anci fwel'» 
ling in the axilla of the infeded arip. 

I have now upwards of cne hundred patients in 
different ftages of ihe diforder^ afid exped many 
rxK)re in a few days.*^ 

The fallowing very fatlsfaflory ^Cco^^Tit of the 
dlffufion of the vaccine difeafe throughout the ifland 
of Ceylon, as publifhtd in the Government Gazette 
fey the Medical Superintendant General, Thomas 

Cluiaie 



[ 37 ] 

Chriftie Efq. will bcconfidered as- elucidating the 
hiftory of the difeafe on that ifland. 

" The extenfivc difFufion of the Cow-pox through* 
out this ifland, and the great attention of the Me- 
dical Gentlemen at the different ftations to this fub- 
j£(5b, enable me to ftate feveral fadls regarding the 
hiftory of this difeale, which from the great impor- 
tance of the fubjedl will, I think, prove interesting 
to many of your readers, and akho* few of the cir- 
cumftances hereafter to be oientioned, can appear 
novel to profefTional nien, who arc acquainted with 
the various writings on the vaccine difcale in Eu« 
rope, they may 1 think afford facisfadion to them, in 
as far as they tend to prove, that the Cow-pox, 
v/hen imported into the Torrid Zone, continues to 
preferve the fame benignant fpecilic charader, and 
to be governed by the fame laws, as in the more 
temperate regions of Europe. 

Above two thoufand fubjeds of all ages and def- 
er ipiions, have been inoculated with Cow pox in 
th^:^ diftria of Columbo during lafl: month, and 
although I hive not yet received the regular reports 
from the more diltapt Nations, I have reafon to 
believe from occafioml communications, that the 
number of perfons inoculated throughout Ccvlon 
during Odober, has not been lefs than three thoufAuJ 
five hundred. Jn 



t 3^ 1 

in all thefe the difeafe has prefervcd its origmal 
fnild nature^ and in no cafe, have any bad ccnfe* 
^ueaces, or even dangerous fymptoms, been oc* 
Cafioned by the inoculation. 

In all cafes in which the inoculation fucceeds, 
flight inflamadon and elevation of the fkin are 
perceptible on the 2d, 3d, 4th or 5th day, and. 
about the 6th, a veficle is in general diftinctly form- 
ed. This veficle of a cellular ftruilure, dcprefled 
in the center, and containing pelkicid lymph, con- 
tinues to encreafe till about the 4th day, V'hcn the 
niattcr begins to ooze out, and the areola to form, 
or what I confider more dcfcriptive in a native fub- 
ject, a circular inflacration not unlike a Common 
boil, the elevation and hardncfs of which, can be 
plainly felt to extend for half an inch or more 
round the veficle. In European fubjecbs this af- 
fumes the appearanc of a beautiful fcariet areola 
and is the principal diflinguifhing characteriliic of 
the difeale, without which the inoculation can- 
not bf* confidered as effective. About the 12th 
day, this circular inflamation gradually fubfidfs, and 
the whole of the matter having oozed from the ve- 
ficle, now forms a fliining fcabof a brown colour, 
which in a few days drops off, and foipetimes leaves 
a fuperncial fore behind it. 

The 



[ 39 1 

T he fi^e of the puftule b various in different 
iubjects, but the circumference qf the vcficle in 
general exceeds fomcwhat that of a large pea. 

Pain in the axilla, though not always prefent, is 
z very conllant attendant of the difeafe, and generaN 
ly comes on about the 5th, and lafts to the loth 
riay. Some degree of fever is alfo in mod inftan^ 
ce:iprefcnc for a day or two, and generally accedes 

about the 4th, ych, or 8th day, 

I have alfo obferved in a few inftances, a fiiort 
-paroxyfm of Fever on the i. 2. or 3 days from ino*» 
.culations, and have been the more particular in rc*- 
marking this circumftance, in confcqueL^ce of an 
«bfervation of Mr. Kennedy at Hyderabad on this 
fubje6t, but as it happened with us in only a very 
fmall proportion of cafes, I am apt to believe that 
in thcfe its occurrence was accidental, and not at all 
connedled with the inoculation, fince fimilar flight 
attacks of fever are by no means unfrequenr, with 
the inhabitants of this ifland. 

We have generally at Columb*) inoculated in 
. both arms for the fake of fecuricy, except i.i the cafe 
of young infants, and 1 think this precaution cer« 
tainly diminiflies the rifk of failure and alfo tends 
to cncrcafe the fever, which in an adult I confidcras 

rather 



t 40 ] 

rather a dlfcrcabh object, fince it never proceeds to 
any alarming heights, and its occurrence feems ia 
general to fatis/y the roinds of the patients thcmfel* 
ves more completely, than when the fymptoms arc 
confined to the mere local affedion. 

In two or three Children, where the fever was 
unufaally fmart, the irritation feemcd to have beeri 
kept up by worms in the intefiines, as immediate 
relief was obtained on voiding fomc of thefc. fn 
one cafe of this defcription the patient, r.n European 
child of two years of age, wa^ afSicTced on the £th 
day from inoculation, with fpafms of rather an 
alarming nature, but thcfe 1 believe proceeded en- 
tirely from worms, as bis abdomen was hard and 
tenfe, and he appeared to refer his complaints to 
that part. Thefe difagreeablc fymptoms were rea- 
dily removed in this child, as in other inftances, by 
the operadon of a fmall dofc of calomel, which 
brought away fome worms. 

In one patient, a native, Tafcorin aged 24 years, 
who accompanied me from Maturato Wcmbaug- 
tottc, (a diftanec of fifty miles) in order to intro- 
duce the difeafe at the latter fiation, there was on 
the 8th day from inoculation an evident encieafc 
of the fulivary difcharge, and m addition ta the ula- 



[ 41 3 

ai fymptoms of pain in the axilla, flight fever, and 
head ache, he complained of forencfs of his throat, 
and difficulty of fwallowing, for that and the follow- 
ing day, but his co;nplaints on the whole, were at- 
tended with fo little inconvenience, that although he 
tra'vclled on thofe daysi he preferred walking to 
riding in a Doolie, which was provided for him. 
The forencfs of the throat, and encreafe of the fili- 
vary difcharge might pofTibly be accidental, buc 
from analogy- with the fmall pox, and the circumf- 
tancc of thefc fymptoms keeping pace with the vac«. 
cine fever, I am apt to believe they v/ere really 
connected wirh the difcafe, and indeed in one or 
two cafes which have occurred fince, the patients 
have complained of flight forenefs of the throat, 
on the day on which they had the Cow-pox fever; 

Although the occurrence of any puflule except 
on the inoculated parts, is an extremely rare occur* 
rence in the true vaccine difeafe, and is I belie v^i 
flill doubted by Dr. Jenner,^ yet we have on Ceylon 
certainly feen three or four in-TtanceSy where one or 
more puftules, bearing ali the charafleriftrcs of the 
vaccine, have appeared on parts' of the body diftant 
from the frat of inoculanon, and which I cannot 
conceive were occafioned either by an accidental 
prick of the lancet^ or from a fccondary inocuia- 

tiois 



C 44 ] 

tlon by means of the patient fcratching the pullute^ 
and afterwards another part of his body, as the fe- 
condary puftule has fhewn itfelf on a diflant part 
of the body, and at a time when no virus was for* 
nied in the inoculated puftule. 

This is moft ftrongly exemplified in the cafe of 
a boy, now, under the care of Mr. Orr, in whom a 
diftind well marked vaccine puftule, appeared on 
the back part of the thigh, on the 4th day after 
inoculation in both arms. The inoculated parts 
.Oiewed the ufual appearance of incipient puftule 
on the 3d day, and on the following that on the 
thigh appeared, fmce which time the three puftules 
have ran their courfc regularly. 

Mr. Carnie formerly inoculated at Jaffnaparam, 
•with matter taken from a fccondary puftule on the 
v/rift, and with it produced the true vaccine dif- 
cafe. Mr. Orr has this day inoculated three per- 
fons, mzh matter from a puftule on the thigh of his 
patient, and if he fuccceds in producing the true 
vaccine difeafe, the experiment will 1 think be con- 
clufive, as to the poftibility of fecondary puftules, 
and alfo of their containing the fame fpccific virus 
as the inoculated ones. I have never fcen any ge- 
neral eruption, which with reafon I could attribute 

to 



[ 43 ] 

to the vaccine inoculation. Patients under vaccine 
inoculation have occauonally fticwn flight erup- 
tions of pimples or prickly heat, at the appearance 
of which they were alarmed, but thefe have foon 
died away, and feemed to me to be only cafual 
eruptions, which are fo common at all times in this 
country, and mud nccefTarily be more frcquenc 
when the patient labours under any febrile affec- 
tion. 

Nine or ten patients who have pafTed thro' the 
Cow-pox on this Ifland, have already been fubjec- 
£ed ro the experiment of inoculation with fmall poj; 
matter, and all of them have perfedly refifted the 
adion of that virus, fo that the fad, that a perfoa 
that has paffed thro' the Cow-pox, is ever afterwards 
fecure againft the expofure to fmall pox cantagion, 
may now be confider'd r^s fully dcmonftrated in this 
country, as well as in Europe, 

The exiftence of the natural fmall pox, has how* 
ever alfo given us an opportunity of feeing verified 
an obfervation of Dr. Woodviile's, that alcho' a pa- 
tient that has pafTcd thro* the Cow- pox is for ever 
afterwards fecure againft the effed of expofure to 
fmall pox contagion, yet that inoculation for the 
former difeafe, will not anticipate the f nail pox, or 

prcyenc 



C 44 ] 

prevent its progrefs, if the infe^lion has been recejv* 
cd previous to inoculation, or even previous to the 
acceflion of the Cow pox fever. 

In two cafes at Columbo, the patients on the day 
after inoculation were feized with fcvere fever, and 
qn the third day, an eruption of fmali-pox took 
place, which however could be traced to natural 
infeilion, the difeafe being in the neighbourhood. 
The cow-pox puflule formed at the ufual time, and 
both difeafes purfued their progrefs without inter- 
ruption. 

One of thefe cafes terminated fatally, and theii 
occurrence ought to teach us the necefiity of cau- 
tioning our patients, againd expofing thcmfclves 
tp the infection of fmall-pox, until the cow-pox 
has finiflied its courfe, and of preparing them in all 
cafes when the fmall-pox is prevalent, for the pof- 
fibility of the occurrence of both difeafes. 

From the prevalence of Meafles at Point de Galle, 
we have alfo had an opportunity in two cafes, of ob- 
fervrng the combination of Meafles with Cow- Pox, 
cr rather the occurrence of both difeafes at the 
f^mc time, in the fame fubjedl, for they both ran 
their courfe feperately and didindlly. In one of 
|hcfc cafes which i favv, the eruption of Meafies ap- 



C 4S ] 

pearcd on the 3d day after Inoculation, and neither 
the eruption or fever feemed at all encreafed, by 
the prefcnce of the vaccine infedion. The vaccine 
veficle formed in the uiual time, but it was the opi- 
nion of Doctor Yate's Medical Superintendant of 
the Gallc diftrict, who carefully watched the pro- 
grcfs of thefe cafes, that the formation of the areola^ 
was in both retarded ont or two days. 

The fhortnefs of time finrc the cow-pox has been 
introduced into this Ifland, docs not enable me to 
fay much with refpcdl to its effedls in removing, 
prevendng, or alleviating other ailments. On this 
fiibje6l I have only to remark, that in an Euro* 
pean child who was cutting teeth, an J for fomc 
days had been fubjefl to an eruption of veficles^ 
which came out in a few hours on different parts 
of his body, and left a diflrcffing rawnefs and ex- 
coriaiion, this complaint was removed on the ac- 
ceffioti of the cow-pox fever, and formation of the 
areola round the puQuk, foon after which the fkin 
became clean, and free from eruption. 

The cow-pox has in general been propogated 
from one (ladon to another on this IHand, by means 
of inoculated patients, for we have found dried 
matter on threads, or glafs, a very uncertain means 

of 



t 4« ] 

of conveying the infection to any dlflance. The 
only cafes in which dried matter has fucceeded on 
Ceylon, are thofe of John Sybclle at Trincoraailcc, 
with matter from Bombay thirty two days old, and 
that of Anatchie at Columbo, with matter from 
Trincomallce fix days old. In the latter the fever 
was very confiderable, and the pudule from the 
nature of the inoculation by incifion, was oval, and 
much larger than uiual. In confequence of this it 
would appear that the virus in the puftule was in a 
very diluted (late, for out of eighteen patients in« 
oculated from her, only one child took the difeafe, 
while of an equal number inoculated from this child, 
who had a fraall veficle, fcarccly one failed. 

As foon as matter can be procured from the vc<* 
ficle, it appears to be effective, and continues fo 
till the areola begines to form. I have occafionally 
made ufc of matter on the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th days 
with effect, but generally prefer it on the 7th or 8th. 
The inoculation widi recent matter has always been 
performed at Celumbo, in the fame way as is ufua| 
for the Small Pox, by inferting in an oblique di- 
rection the point of a hncct armed with virus, im* 
mediately under the cuticle, and retaining it there 
feme feconds. The inoculation in this way, gene- 
rally takes place in both arms, (if both arc punctu. 

red) 



t 47 3 

red) and fcldom fails altogether, our failures have 
not I think exceeded one in fifteen cafes, and in thefc 
I have always found the padents cheerfully liibmic 
to a fecond or third trial. Indeed the cagcrnefs 
which the natives of Ceylon, particularly on this 
fide of thelfland, Ihew to benefit by this difcovcry, 
is really wonderful, and truly gratifying. 

The inocularion having fometimes aflumed a 
doubtful appearance, the operation has been re- 
peated, and in feveral of thefe cafes, the firft in- 
oculation has afterwards put on the regular appear- 
ance, and the fecond alfo has taken effe6l, having 
produced another puftule, which ran its courfe at 
the fame time with the original one, although in a 
different ftage. 

The pofsibility alfo of producing the vaccine 
puftule on a perfon who has had the fmall-pox, has 
been put to the teft of experiment by Mr. Cairniej 
who inoculated himfelf and feveral children, who 
had pafTed thro' the fmall-pox, and in one of thefc 
a diftinct vaccine puilule was produced, though 
not attended v/ithany fever or pain in the axilla. 

Our rapid fuccefs in extending the defeafe here, 
is I think in a great degree to be attributed, to the 
minds of the natives having been familiarized to the 

Idea 



[ +8 ] 



Idea of inoculation, by means of the benevolent 
inditutions which have for Tome time been fftablifh- 
cd on this IQand, for Inoculation vvith the Small 
Vox'y and to the Vv^ife meafure of Government, in 
circulating addrcITes in the native languages, ex- 
plaining the numerous and important advantages of 
vaccine Inoculation. 

This praflice is now happily introduced at even 
the mofl: remote flations on this Ifland, and 1 en- 
tertain the motl fanguine hopes, that by means of 
it, we fhall in a very fev; months eradicate the Small 
Pox emirely from thcfc fettlcments/' 

The intereft occafioned by (he account of the 
introduclion of the vaccine difeafe at Bombay, 
v*'as great and general. — Dr. James Anderfon Phy- 
fician General at Fort St. George, humanely corv- 
fidcred that it would be of importance, to circulate 
through the medium of the Madras Gazette, all 
the reports that were tranfmitted to him on this 
fubjcdl. 

Thefe communications enabled medical men to 
compare the appearances in their own patitnrs, 
with what occured to others, and informed them of 
the progrcfs of the difeafe, from (lacion to ftation. 

The 



r 49 1 

The exertions of Dr. Andcrfon were zesbus and 
unccafingi — he forwarded to every medical maoj 
and to many others, copies of his printed corrcf- 
pondcnces— 'the foregoing letters, as well as thofc 
that follow, in proof of the genuine nature of the 
difeafc, and of its power in preventing the fmall- 
pox, I have been enabled to collcft from thefc 
printed papers, and I gladly embrace the oppor- 
tunity of expreffing my acknowledgements for his 
great artention in fending them regularly. 

It mafl: give pleafure to Dr. Anderfon to refleft, 
that the extenfivc difT^jnination of the vaccine di- 
ftafe throughout India; has been greatly promoted 
by his care and humanity. 

FORr fFILLUM,— December i, 1802. 

The Governor General in Council is pleafed to 
dlred, that the following letter, with its enclofures, 
addreffed by John Fleming, Efq. firft Member of 
the Medical Board, co His Excellency in Council, 
be publifhed for general information. 

To His Excellency the Marquis IVelleJly, K, P; Go- 
V'^rnor General in Council, 
My Lord, 

It is with the higheft fatisfaclion I do myfelf the 
honour of acquainting your Excellency;^ thac afccr 

repeated 



C 50 ] 

repeated dirappointments we hiwc atlaft through the 
benevolent attention of Dr. Andeifon at Madras, 
been lo fortunate as to obtain the recent matter of 
the cow-pox, and that we have tliereby been cna- 
bled to inrroducf the pra^^ilice of vaccination into 
this jcttleinent. I herewith cnclofo the letter^ wkh 
^vhicn 1 was favcured by the Doctor on the Tub- 
je.fl, together with one,, which 1 have received from 
Captain Anderfon, commander of the fhip Hunter, 
u'hofe afiiduoQS attention to eniure iirccels to the 
important corr.miffion, with wliich he was entrull- 
cd, in very meritorious. 

John Norton the boy vaccinated by Captain An- 
derfon on the 12th inftant, arrived in Calcutta on 
the 17th, with fuch evident and decisive marks on 
his arm of being infeded v;ith the genuine cow- 
pox, as left no room for doubt or hesitation. As 
the matter was already ripe for communicating the 
infedion, three children born of European parents^ 
belonging to His Majelly's 10th Regiment, were 
vaccinated by Mr. William I\ussell on that day ; 
and on the day following the operation was per- 
formed on eight others. Among thefe were two 
children of Mr. Barlow, o.p.e of Colonel Dyer, one 
of Mr. Birch, oneof Mr. 'I rail, and one of Mr. Bin^ 
ny, in ali ot whcm, as util as in the three children 

of 



[ 5« ] 

of the loth Regiment, I liad an opportunity of ob* 
fcrving the progrefs of the infedion, and from corn- 
paring the fymptotns and appearances produced by 
it, with the minute and circuiii(l;intial defcriptions 
given bvDoclor Jenner, Mr. Atkin, and Dr. De 
Carro, and with the coloured plates, by which their 
dcfcriptions are illufi rated, I am perfeclly fati.sned, 
that it was the true vaccine-dikafe. Messrs. Ruf- 
fells. Hare Shoo] bred, and other Medical Gentle- 
men, who had an opportunity of feeing the cliildren, 
are fully impressed with the fame convi:"!:ion. la 
confirmation of this important fact, I tiiink it pro- 
per to mention, that three children who were ino- 
culated with the thread fcnt me by Captain An- 
derlbn from Kedgeree, as mentioned in his letter, 
received the infeaion, and fliewed in the progrelk 
of the difcafe the fime charadcnlVic fymprom and 
appearances on the arm, as thole that were inocu- 
lated r7om Norton. The fame fatisfactory refulc 
"Was experienced in refpe'"!: to two children inocu- 
lated by Mr. Shoolbred on t'le 2Cih, and two or!:er3 
on tiic 2 1 ft, from matter taken from Norton''; arm 
or ti.e 1 9di, all of whom, he aflures tne, exhioice.! 
in tiiC moit unequivocal m^inncr, the diilhiguidiing 
fyn-ptomisof the genuine cow-pox. 

The fettlemenc being now, as' I conceive, in 
complete poncilion cf the bench: derived to m^ni- 

kind 



C 52 3 

kind from Do6lor Jenner's celebrated dlfcovery^ 
I cake the liberty cf fubmitting to your Excellen- 
cy's confideration, my opinion on the bed mode of 
preferving the continuance of fo great a bleQlng, 
and fpreading it as rapidly as pcITible throughout 
the provinces. 

For attaining the firfi: of thefe important obje<fls, 
I would recommend that a Surgeon of approved 
ilcill and adiduity, fhould be appointed to the 
charge of preferving a conftant fupply of recent ge- 
nuine matter, for the ufe of the metropolis and the 
fubordinate (ktions; and that it (hould be a part of 
his duty not only to vaccinate the children of fuch 
of the Natives as might apply to him, but alfo to 
take every opportunity to inflrufl the Hindoo and 
Mahomedan Phyficians in the proper mode of 
performing the operation, and to give them pre- 
cife and clear information refpeding thofc fymptoms 
and appearances, by which the fpccific genuine 
cow-pox may be diftinguifned from other eruptions. 

To facilitate the general adoption of the pra6licc 
of vaccination by the Natives, I beg leave to fug- 
gcftthata notification fliould be publifhed in the. 
PerfiLin, Hindevy, and Bcngalefe languages, and 
alfo in tlie Sanfcrir, giving 



C 53 ] 

f. A fuccint Hidory of the dircovery, In which 
the curious, and to the Hindoos, very interelU 
ing circumftance that this wonderful preventive 
was originally procured from the body of the 
cow fhould be emphatically remarked. 

2. An explanation of the important, and efTential 
advantages which vaccination pofTeflcs over the 
fmall-pox inoculation, and 

Laftly an earned: exhortation to the Natives of thclc 
provinces tolofe no time in availing themfdves 
of this cneftimable benefit, fcarcely inferior to 
any that ever was communicated by one nation to 
another. 

I have the honor to be. 

With the greated refpefb. 
My Lord, 
Your Excellency's mofl: obedient 
Humble Servant, 

J. FLEMING, 

ijl Member of the Med, Boards 

Calcutta, November 29, 1802. 

(COPY) 
Fort SL Gsorgey O^oler 11, 1802. 
Dear Sir, 

Not having heard of the Bombay Ccw-pox 
matter fuccecding in Bengal, I take the opportu- 
nity 



C 54 3 

filty of the fhip Hunter failing, to inoculate two 
Boys bom of European parents at Botany Bay 
(where the f nail pox has never appeared ) belong- 
jng to the fliip, by vvhom Captain /^ndcrfon, the 
commanderj hopes of being able to continue the 
difeafe in fuccefljon until his arrival at Calcutta. 

The matter with which thcfe tv^o Boys have 
been inoculated, v/as taken lad night from the arm 
of a healthy child inoculated at Chinglepur on the 
I ft inftant, with threads fcnt on the 9th ultimo from 
Trincomallee by Mr. Rogers, the difeafe appears 
to all here to be of the genuine kind, r<nd confi- 
dent of your attention to promote the benefit of 
tins invaluable difcoveiy, 

I am very truly yours, 
(Sigfie^d) JAMES ANDERSON, 
JOHN FLEMING, EJq. 
Calcutta, 



(COPY.) 

JOHN FLEMING, Efq, 

Sir, 

Agreeably to your defire, I have the pleafure of 
fending you the following memorandums, rtfpecl- 
ing the perfons I inoculared for the Cow-pox du-* 
ling my paffagc from Madras, 

John 



[ 55 1 

John Crefswell, a boy born at Port Jackfon of 

European parents, aged about thirteen years, was 
inoculated at Do-'Jlor Anderfon's houfe at Madras* 
on the loth of06tober, from a native child who 
had arrived that day from Chinglcput. As the di- 
feafe made its appearance rather late, and after- 
wards advanced very ilovvly, I did not take matter 
from him till the 2 2d ultimo, when I inoculated 
M. A. an European child, aged eighteen months. 
From her I inoculated Harry, a Malay boy, aged 
about feven years, on the 2d oi November. And 
on the i2ch, Cliarks Norcon a boy born at Pore 
Jackibn of European parents, aged about fifteca 
years, was inoculated from Harry. The difeafc 
having made its appearance in due time, as foon as 
the fhip arrived at Diamond Harbour, I fent him 
to town, where he arrived on the 19th inftant, and 
was difpofcd of ad you direded. • 

The cotton threads which I fent you from Ked- 
geree, were ftrongly impregnated with vaccine mat- 
ter taken from the European child and the Mala^ 
boy, on the 2d and S2th inftant, as pardcularly 
marked on each. ^ j,,,, ^j,^ ^^^^^^^ 

Sir, 

Youx mail obedient humble Servant^ 
(Signed] WM. ANDKRSGN,. 

The 



[ s& 3 

The Governor General in Council is plcafed to 
order ; 

ifl. — That the high J^ppfobation of His Excel- 
lency in Council he (ignificd to Dodor James 
Anderfon, Phyfjcian General and firft Member of 
the Hofpital Board upon the Eftablifhment of Fort 
St. George, for the benevolent attention, alTiduity, 
and (idW, manifefted by hicn in promoting the in- 
trodu6tion into thefe province of the benefit of the 
valuable and important difcovery made by Do6lor 
Jcnner, and that this order be tranfmitted to the 
Right Honorable the Governor in Council of Fore 
St. George, for the purpofe of being duly fignified 
to Doctor Anderfan. 

2d. — That the Chief Secretary do fignify ta 
Captain Anderfon, Conr.mander of the (liip Hun- 
ter, the thanks of the Governor General in Coun- 
cil, for his affiduous attention in infuring the fuccefs 
of the imporrant commiffion with which he wa§ 
entrufted. 

3d. — That the Chief Secretary do fignify the 
approbation of the Governor General in Council to 
John Fleming, Efq. and to MefT. RufTclls, Hare, 
and Shoolbred, and the other Medical Gentlemen, 
employed in this important occafion, for their di- 
ligence 



E 57 1 

ligence and ability, in promoting at this Prefidcncy 
the fuccefiful introduilion of Dodor Jfenner*s dif^ 
Co very. 

4th.— That Mr. William RufTel be appointed to' 
fuperincend the further promotion of the benefits of 
Dodor Jenner's difcovery throughout the Provin- 
ces fubjefl to the im mediate Government of this 
Prefidency,' 

5th.— That a notification be prepared and piib« 
lifhed in thePcrfian, Hindevy, Bengalefe and Shanf- 
crit languages, according to the fuggelTion of Mto 
J'leming, 

By Command of His Excellency^ the Mofi 
NgMc the Governor General in Council^, 

J. LUMSDEN, 

Ch ief Sec-, to ihe Go'Vt„ 

Raving traced from' auchennc documents the hif- 
tory of the introduftion' of the cow pox at this 
place, r fliali defcrlbc the difeafc/as it has appeared 
fo us in its various ftages, the fymptoms attending" 
its progrefs, and the means of dillinguilhing the true 
dlfeafc from the Ipurious. 

About tlie end of the third, or beginning of the 
fouichday^ on examining: the part wher.e the matter 

was 



C 53 3 

was Inferted, it appears (lightly inflamed and kder'd,' 
If the patient be of European parents, or the fkin of 
a light colour, it will be evident at this period, whe- 
ther the inoculations have fucceeded ; but when the 
Ikinisvery tawney or black, it is frequently diffi- 
cult to pronounce decidedly, until the fifth day. 

On the fixth day, the inflamation is confiderably 
advanced, the part has a raifed appearance, and a 
fmall vcficle is formed, fliowing a deprcffed, dif- 
coloured fpeck in the centre; if the veficle be fiightly 
punftured, a fmall quanuty of limpid virus oozes 
out. 

On the eighth day, a well marked veficle is form- 
ed, about the fize of a pea, circular and flat, with 
the depreflion in the middle very diflindl. If the 
fi^in be white or light coloured, about this period an 
inflamed ring, or areola, is obfcrved to furround the 
puftule, the axillary gbnds become fwelled and pain- 
ful, and a fcnfe of weight and ftiff^nefs affeds in fome 
cafes, the (boulder and pectoral mufclcs. 

Thefc fymptoms in f^me cafes proceed to a 
conflderable height, and occafion great uneafinefs, 
akho' more commoaly, a flight degree of tcnfion in 
tlie axillary glands, and forenefs about the arm pit are 
all that occur. 

Ale out 



t 59 ] 

About the 9th day, the veficle appears to have at* 
twined its greateft hfighr, and fhovvs an appearance 
very different, from the variolous puflule. It conti- 
nues round or oval, but never rough or indented in 
the margin j and akho' rifing above the fkin, is al- 
ways fiatcen'd, and has never the conical appearance, 
that a puliule offmall pox has. The maiccr it con- 
tains is not as in the faiall pox in a fingle bagj buc 
in a number of diftincl cells, each of which it is ne-. 

ceflary to punclure, in order to obtain its fluid. 
• 

The inflamed ring or areola, frequently furrounds 
the pullule for an inch or t'.vo, giving thtj arm the 
appearance of a degree of Eryfipelas, and the inocu- 
lated fpot, and parts contiguous, feel like a Phleg- 
mon or boil. 

From the loth to the 12th day, the veficle begins 
to dry and turn black in the middle ; by the 14th 
day, it is changed into a fcab of a dark brown, or 
black colour, which falls off from the 14th to the 
1 3th day, and leaves a mark on the arn?. Tlie 
vaccine difcafe has now run its courfe, and exerted 
an influence on the habit, capable of fecuring it 
from [.'le conragion offmall pox. 

The local aifedtion and appearances of the veCich 
sslhave defcribed theiT)^ have ihown very lictle 

variety 



[ 6o ] 

^^arlefy m their progrefs ; a much greater latitucfe 
has been obferved, with refpefl to the conftitutional 
fymptoms, which have varied materially. In fome 
cafes, a confiderable degree of febrile indifpofition 
is obfervcd, during the fth or 6th day from inocula- 
tion, but more generally, the fever comes on about 
the ythj and continues during the 8th day j in cafes 
where the puftule has been much reforted to for 
virus, and the cells opened to obtain it, the inflamma- 
tion, tenfion of the glands, as well as fever have ap- 
peared to be greatly encreafed. It frequently hap- 
pens however, in cafes where there is fuelling of the 
axillary glands, and where the veficle is diftinclly 
formed, and alTumes the regular appearances^ 
throughout the various flages, that there has been no 
febrile unesfmefs, or that it has been fo flight ss to 
efcape notice. 

The afFeclion of the axillary glands, is in every 
cafe more or lefs evident, and forms a leading fymp- 
tom in the hiflory of the difeafc. The acceffion 
of fever frequently comes on before noon, and con- 
tinues for a few hours; towards the evening, there 
is again an increafe of fever, which alfo continues 
for a fhort time, and leaves the patient without any 
complaint. In many cafes wheie there is no fever 
throughout the difeafc, the patient complains of 

headache 



[ 6i ] 

Jicadache or drowfinefs, from the 6th to the 8th 
day. It has bcea frequently obferved that after 
the accefTion of fever about the 7th day, a re- 
currence of febrile indifpofition, has been com- 
plained of about the loth day, frequently in a 
more fevere degree than the primary fever, I 
have feldom however found the fever, or tenfioa 
of the axillary glands, require any particular atten- 
tion. ! have indeed feen two indances where the 
inflammation of thofe glands, terminated in fuppura- 
tion, and v^here poultices were ufcful and neceflary, 
the tumours burd, and the fores healed readily. Ic 
v/as not obferved, that the local or conditutional 
fymptoms in thofe cafes, were more fevere than ge- 
nerally take place; in both cafes the irritation pro- 
duced by the fuppurations, occafioned pretty icvere: 
fever. 

The vaccine difeafe throughout its progrefs, as 
well withrefpecl to the appearances of the inocula- 
ted fpot, as the general or conftitutional afiedion of 
the fyftem, has fnown here a good deal of uniformi- 
ty; and in feveral thoufands which I have fubjeftcd 
to the inMuence of this difeafe, the reiuli: has beea 
as nearly as poliible what I have mentioned. 

On the 9th day, or after 8 compleat days from 
inoculation, I have always fouiid the matter in tl^e 

grtateft 



[ 62 ] 

greatefl: plenty, the veficle is turgid, and the vi- 
rus obtained from ic, thin and Hoipid; it is alfo rea- 
dily procured in confiderable quantity^ by flightly 
puncSluring, the outer white lucid ring with the 
point of a lancet. I have frequently found it diffi- 
cult to obtain colourlefs matter after the 9th day, 
as it appears to undergo fome change, or decompo- 
fition; and is altered from a limpid, to a white, or 
pus like matter. I think I have alfo failed more 
frequently in my inoculations, when I ufed virus 
from a veficle on the loth day, than in cafes where 
I procured ic on the 8th complete day from ino- 
culation. I have fometimes ufed matter from a 
veficle of fix days duration, which is too foon, as 
it is not only difficult to obtain the virus in fufii- 
cicnt quantity, but the fuccefs of the operation is 
alfo more doubtful. 

The vaccine pox with fnbjeds of every defcrip- 
tion, has proved a fafe difeafe, with infants and very 
young children however, it has been much milder 
than with older children, or grown up people^ in the 
former cafe, nothini< but tht^ local affedion has been 
in general perceptible, whereas with adults, the pri- 
mary, as well as fecondary fever, has been in many 
inftances pretty fevcrc for fevcral days. It fome- 



limes 



r 63 ] 

times happens, when the puftule Is fcratched and 
irritated, that the fcab inftead of falling off, from 
the 14th to the i3th day, continues to exhibit aa 
angry ulcerous afpedt: a degree of redncfs like 
eryfipelas, in a few cafes has come on, andaffeded 
the whole arm. When this is the cafe, fome atten- 
tion is nece(r4ry, to prevent the original veficic 
from degenerating into a foul, and troublefomc 
ulcer. Such confequences are no doubt very rare, 
but 1 have fcen two cafes, where from inattention, 
and carelefsnefs in allowing children to tear and 
fcratch themfelves, the whole arm became fwollen, 
and a number of difagreeable fore?, difficult t3 
heal, were produced. In fuch cafes, the application 
of camphorated fpirit, or ftrong goulard water, 
with the ufe of laxatives, have been neceflary to 
accomplifh the healing of the fores. 

Any perfon that has obferved the genuine vac- 
cine puftule in a few cafes only, and has devoted a 
common degree of attention, to the different ap- 
pearances that take place, during its progrefs, caa 
feldom have much doubt in didinguifliing the real, 
from any cafe of a fpurious nature that can occur. 
It may be impoflible or difficult to explain why the 
fame virus, fhall when inferted in the fame way 
into different fubj^dls, produce in fome, the genuine 

difcafc 



I 64 ] 



difeaf^, and fall entirely in others; and fomc times 
chough producing an affcdion of the part, yet oc- 
cafion an appearance of difeafe^ very efientially dif- 
ferent from the real cow-pox, and v;ich"ouc pro- 
ducing the necefiary change in the conflicution, to' 
fecure exemption, from the variolous contagion* 

Whether an explanation of thefe fadts can be ob» 
tained, or not, it becomes a fubjedl of the lad im- 
portance for a medical man to attend to, as with- 
out a careful defcrimination, fubje6ls may be often" 
pronounced fafe from the contagion of rmall-pox, 
U'hen in fat5l the vaccine difeafe has not been pre- 
fenc, nor excited the ufual cohftitudonarfysilptomsa 
or produced the regular local aff^dlion. 

1 have obferved three varieties of fpurlous cow- 
pox, or more properly f[)eaki'ng, I have fcen that 
after the infertion ofgenuine virus, local afteclions 
have been produced^ efi>ntially different from each 
other, awd very far from putting on the appearances 
of the true difeafe. 

The fiffh variety occurs moft frequtritly, and on 
every account merits attention j it runs its courfc 
very rapidly. On the 2d day the inflammation 
is confiderable; about the third day, it is very much 
increalcd^-and furrounded with a confidca-able de- 



r 6j ] 

gree of rednefs. About the 6ch day, inftead of a 
vcficlc, which ought to be formed with rhc ufual 
charaderidic marlcR, the part has the appearance of 
an irregular feftered fore, and on being punflurcd 
or rubbed, a little pus or difcoloured fluid, is dif- 
charged infteadof the limpid vaccine virus already 
defcribed. The puftule, or fefter*d fpot is never 
flat, it has never the lucid edges, nor is there any 
dcprtflion or fpeck in die centre ; it is alfo fmaller, 
and has never the fmooth, round, or oval ap- 
pearance, that the genuine vaccine puftule has, 
It refembles a fmall fefter'd fore, from any poifon, 
or the wound of a thorn, and has a fimilar du- 
ration. The whole procefs of the difeafe is over 
about the 8rh or 9th day, as the fcab generally falls 
off about this period. No conftltucional fymptoms^ 
attend this variety, nor have I ever obferved any 
fullnefs in the axillary glands; after all however, in 
requires experience and attention not to millake this 
kind, for a very mild fort of cov/ pox. 

In fome cafes I have obferved a fpongy, or warty- 
like variety of fpurious cow-pox, in this as in the 
former cafe, the inflammation comes on coo csdy, 
about the 3d day, there is a confiderablc degree of 
rednefs, and a difcharge of a coloured, or fcrous fluid, 
a good dealrcfcmbling pug i this continues to ex- 



t 66 3 

ude from time to time, and when the part is not rub* 

bedj forms a cruft^ or fpongy-like fubftance, which 
increafes in fize from continued exudation, and 
becomes dry in the air, I have feen a few cafcs^ 
v^here the niatter was of the fize, and a good deal 
refembied a fplit rough almond, laid on the inocu- 
lated fpot. 

In a few cafes I have obfcrved a diiferent ap- 
pearance, but whether it be a variety of the hi\, or 
another ipccies of fpurious difeafe, it is difficult to 
determine. 

About the 2d day from inoculation, the cuticle 
appears railed, as if a fmall blifter had been applied, 
the vefjcation gradually continues to increafe, for two 
or ihree days ; I have fecn a few cafes where the 
bhPcer'd-like appearance was of the fize of a half- 
pennyion being punctured a thin ferous fluid is dif. 
charged, by the 8th day, the cuticle is ready to fall 
oir, leaving an excoriation which heals readily. 
neither of thcfe cafes, could I difcover any confli- 
tiitional affeflion,. or fwelling, or tenfion, of the 
<.ilancl5 in the armpit. On re-inoculating the fame 
lubjevfls v/kh frcfn virus, a genuine affeclion was 
produced, which ran its courfe with the ufual local, 
^nd contlituuional fymptoms. 



Of 



[ 67 ] 

Of thcfe three varieties of fpurloiis cow-pox, if 
they may be fo called, the firft is by much the 
mod comrnon, and moft hkely to be mlftaken fur 
the true difeafe. The two laft mentioned varieties 
cannot well be midaken, but I confidered it ne- 
ceflary to mention them. I: is of importance to 
decide on certain circiimrtances, v;hich may always 
be confider'd as diftinguirhing the real difeafe, from 
every variety that can occur. In the genuine dif- 
eafe, the progrefs is (low and regular; the inflarnma- 
tion at the inoculated part, never comes on before 
the end of the jd, or 4th day, this condnues to en- 
creafc progrefTjvely until! the 9th day; on or before 
this time, there is a general affection of the fyftem, 
and fome Avelling of the axillary glands, and pain 
and uneaOnefs aboat the arm pit. When the fkin 
is white or of a light colour, there is alfo an areola 
or Eryfipelas-like bluQi, farrounding the puflub; 
the veficle is always dillinfl, and never has that full 
or hemifphericai appearance, that marks the variol- 
ous puftule; it is always round or oval in its bafc, and 
aicho' raifed, it is flat, and pitted' in the middle. 
The nuld contained in the veficle is always limpid, 
"and colourlefs, unci.U after the 9th day, and a wliite 
gloiTy ring or border always furrounds, or marks 
tl^ie bound ary of the vefjclc;-— on puncturing ir, the 

fluid 



t 68 1 

fluic? IS found in cells, ciiflin<S from each other, 
and the whole ring iDuft be punflured, to dif- 
charge the contents, as the cells have no com- 
munication with each other. After the fcab formsj 
5t is a rare occurrence its leaving any fore behind ir, 
it feldom falls off before the 1 8th day, when it leavcl 
the (kin found, but flightly marked or pitted. 

An attention to thefe circumfl'ances, will prevent 
the true difeafe from being miftaken; for any ano- 
molous appearances that may occur; in every doubt- 
ful cafe however, recourfe fhould be had to re-ino- 
culation, from an unexceptionable fource. If after 
repeated attempts, to communicate the difeafe by 
new inoculations, no local difeafe, or only a fmall 
imperfedl veficle is produced, which runs irs courfe 
more rapidly than is ufual, in the true diftafc, we 
tnay conclude that the patient is perfcdly fecurc4 
by the firft inoculation. 

In three cafes where the attempt to communi- 
cate the infedlion had apparently failed, when there 
was ncidier inflammadon> nor a vcflige of the punc- 
ture on rhc 6th or 7th day; yet afcer this period, in- 
flammation has conje on, and the difeafe has regular* 
ly run its courfe, with the ufual local and co^^ftitu- 
tionai affeclions. As thefe cafes of protraded vac- 
cination 



t h 1 

dnation are however very rare, it Is, always proper 
tore-inoculate on the 5th day, provided rhc fucccfj 
of the former inoculation fcems doubtful. 

I have frequendy obferved that a vaccine puflule 
has been produced, containing the limpid virus, 
butofafmall size, and warty appearance, I have 
uniformly considered myfelf juflified in viewing fuch 
cafes with diftruft, and in confcquence, I fubje^^ the 
patients to a new inoculation. 

It appears from the teftlmony of many ref* 
pe6lablc authors, who have written on this fubjcft^ 
that fecondary puftuks on different parts of the 
bodvr, are not uncommon. I have never however 
feen ope inftaqce, of any puftule being produced, 
Vnlcfs on the fpot where the matter was inferted. 
From the valuable communications of the Me- 
dical Gentlemen at Ceylon, it appears however that 
fecondary puRules, have in feveral cafes appeared. 
In two or three cafes, I have obferved puftules oa 
the face and neck, but thefe cafes were fatisfadori- 
ly accounted for, by the accounts of the mothers, 
ornurfe^ of the patients, for it was evident rhac 
by fcratching the puftule, and afterwards ufing the 
nails to perforin the fame offices oa other parts of 



the 



[ 70 1 

the body, that a frefh inoculation was in fact per- 
formed; and in confequence a new puftule pro- 
duced. In a few cafes I have obferved fmall 
pimples, near to the vaccine puftule, in thefc cafes 
the local affedion was unufually fevere; thefe pim- 
ples never contained any virus, or if any fluid was 
prcfent, it was of a coloured appearance, and dif- 
ferent from the contents of the vaccine veficle. 
1 am difpofed to confidcr thefe pimples, as fpring- 
ing from local irritation, rather than arifing from 
the influence produced on the conlUcution, by the 
inoculated veficle. 

The natives of this country negled to perform, 
their accuftomed daily ablutions, as foon as they 
perceive that their children are affeded with the 
fmall-pox, they obferve the fame rule after inocula-* 
tion with the vaccine virus: among the lower orders 
of them difeafes of the fl^:in, or an itchy eruption is 
very common, and is fometimes their companion 
from the cradle to the grave, 

Jt follows necefTarlly that with this tendency to 
difcafe on the ficin, their neglcding to bathe, al- 
lows the eruption to become more virulent. In this 
manner I am difpofed to account for a particular 
Eppearance, which cccured in one of our villages 

in 



I 71 3 

id the country. Dr. Scott and myfelf inoculated, 
all the children in the diftrift alluded to, who had 
not gone through the fmalKpox. The difeafe ran 
its courfe regularly, but about the 1 5th day, vvc 
were informed that many of the children had caught 
the natural fmall-pox; on examining them an crup-? 
tion was very evident, the pimples were fmall 
but contained no fluid that was perceptible, nor had 
they any con-flitutional afFedtion. This eruption 
was evidently not the fmall-pox, but it is very 
probable, that it was prickly heat, or the itch, 
which had gained an afcendancy by their ne- 
glefling their ufual ablutions. 

When the vaccine difeafe is introduced at any 
ftanon, it becomes neceirary to guard with vigilance, 
fo great a trcafure, for if it be once lofl:, it may be 
diii:cult or impoffible foon to recover it. Here, as 
in England, we cannot have recourfe to the parent 
flock, for unfortunately the cows of this region, are 
not endowed by providence with fo great a bleffing 
to man : whether therefore we confider the f aluc cf 
communicating the difeafe to the individual, or of 
prefcrving it for poftcrity, fome cautions become 
necelTary for prefcrving it. 

Scarcely any medical treatment is neceflary, 
during any ftage of this difeafe, if the fever br. fcver« 

Khe 



[ 72 ] 

the common means may be had recourfe to, to mlti* 
gate it, and the local afFcdion is ^ucce^^fully ma- 
naged, by adopting when neccflary the means al- 
ready mentioned. 

1 have when inoculating ftle6led thofe only for the 
purpofe of obtaining matter, where there exifted all 
the local affeclions well marked, and where there 
had been forne degree of fever, and Avelling of the 
axillary glands. I have always taken matter from 
a , uftule, on the 8th compleat day from inoculati- 
on, and if any part of it gave out coloured mat- 
ter, I have rejedled it, and taken only fuch as was 
Jimpid or coiourlcfs. 

I may mention that the fame veficle, will be often 
found to contain the limpid virus, and coloured 
matter not capable of producing the genuine difeafe ; 
indeed a fmall quantity of pus is in general formed 
in the centre of the veficle, where the pujifture is 
made, the outer glofiey ring only containing the 
limpid virus. By attending to thefe cautions no mif- 
take is likely to happen. 1 have pafTed the difeafe 
thro' fome thoufand fubjefts, and I have it now as 
diilindly marked, and as adive in its elFeds, as it 
appeared in Anna Dufthall the firft fubjedt infcded 
in India, 



Medical 



[ 73 ] 

Medical mfri ^v^lO have performed vaccire irio^* 
Culiuion, or have intcreded themfclves in propogat# 
ing the difcafc, mufl have fieqiiently txperlcnccj 
great difappoiniment and vexncion, from the nuni* 
ber of failures, even where the inoculations have bec-i> 
performed, under the moft favorable circumfiancrs. 
Many caufes combine, in increafing the dffficuhy 
"We labour under. Our patients hitherto,' have gene- 
rally been more difpofcd to ccnfider themfclves 
conferring a favor, than receiving a benefit, and 
TV-hate yer injundions may be laid on them, they 
are often difregarded or very litde attended to. It 
follows of ccnfequence that no care is taken to pre- 
vent the fubjefl from fcratching, or rubbing the 
part, and the virus is in confcquence occafionally 
loft, before it has exerted any influence on the conf- 
ticution. 

I have lately perfofmed my inoculations in the 
follovvirig manner, with very good fuccefs, as on a 
medium I have not more than one infrance of fai- 
lure in 8 or lo cafes. 

After pun6luring the cells gently, ft) as 'o fccjre 
an abundant e^cudation of the iimpkl virus.and wi[i]- 
out performing this fo roughly as to draw blood, I 
apply the point of a lanctr, and carefully cove:- both 

fiJes 



C 74 ] 

fides of it v.'-th the limpid matrer. I allow tliJs to 
dry flightly, and afterwards, before infcriing it, I 
a fecond tirne apply the point of the lancet to the 
virus. The lancet is introduced obliquely under 
thr cuticle, about the infertion of the deltoid mufcle 
or in any other part of the arrnj intwo or three places 
in each fubjefV, and about an inch from each other* 
This is done in one or both arms, and the lancet is 
always cleaned before being ufed a fecond time. I 
endeavor [o perform the inoculation fo flightly, as 
not to draw blood, bu if any follow, the fpeck is 
allowed to dry, and if pofTiblethe fubje(fl is prevent:- 
ed from touching it, until this take place. It 
does not appear neceflliry, or ufefu! to apply cither 
bandage, orplaiftcr, v/hen frefh virus is ufed. 1 have 
perfuaded myfclf that inferting virus in both arms 
ge.'ieraily fecures fome degree of fever, and as the 
occurrence of this fymptom is always fatisfaclory, I 
think Uiat in grown-up people, or in cafes where 
there is any danger from the contagion of the fmall 
pox, that the inoculation fhould be performed in 
three or four places. 

It frequ^'-ntly becomes a matter of importp.ncr, 
to prefervc the vaccine matter for a fnort time ; 
cirh.er for inoculation on the fpot, or for the pur- 
poic of conveying it to a diftancc. Various me- 
thods 



[ 75 ] 

lliods have been recommended for attaining this 
objed, and as we experienced no fmall degree or 
difficulcy, in conveying the matter in an active 
flare, even to a fhort diftance, v/e had recourfc 
to various expedients. We preferved virus on 
threads, between plates of glafif, and on Ivory 
lancets, and although wc not unfrequently failed in 
all our endeavors; we were led to prefer the firft 
method. 

The threads after being carefully and repeatedly 
foaked in the puliule, and after being dried, were 
put into fiiver tubes, and conveyed by poll; in this 
way we wore generally fucceeded than in any other, 
I freq'jenrly ufe matter kept for fome days on th-s 
elongated (lopper of a glafs Phial, fuch as is ufcd 
by the vaccine Inditute in London, and I fucceed 
occafionally in this way, yet ic cannot be denied 
that fuccefs is very uncertain vv'hcn virus is ufcd, 
that has been dried for only a few hours. The 
only certain mode of effectually conveying the di- 
feafe from one pLice to another, is by means of 
fubjccls under the influence of the difcafe. 

It has been recommended in v/hatevcr way the 
snatter be kept, to moifien ic before ic is ufeu, tiiis 
wc have found a dangerous praflice, for wc have 
conRantly tailed^ when the kail moiHure was ap- 
plied. The 



C 75 ] 

The mode recommended by Dr. de Carrb of 
Virnna, when the virus is prcferv^ed on threads, i$ 
Certainly the beft. He cuts the threads into fmall 
portions, eich in length about a quarter of ari inchj 
the cuticle is then divided in two or more phces, 
near to each other, the threads are laid into the 
incifi )ns, and afterwards a fmall portion of cloth is 
placed over the whole, to defend them from the 
plainer which is fubfcquently put on; a bandage i$ 
lad of all applied over the whole. 

When the vaccine vjrus has been prefcrved on 
glafs, a fpear pointed lancet after being dipped in 
cold v^ater, fo as to take up the fmalleft pofllblc 
portion adhering to the point of it, is to be ap- 
plied CO thr virus, and gently rubbed on it, fo as 
to form a kind of mucilage, the lancet being im- 
pregnated in this manner, the inoculation is to be 
performed as already mentioned, this is the only 
cafe in which it can be neceffary, or is advifeabk to 
moillen the virus. 

Dr. de Cairo of Vienna, finding that the mode 

I have mentioned of prefcrving virus on threads 
frequently failed, was in confequence led to adopt 
the following method, as communicated in a letter 
to Z.ord El^m, ^^d forwarded by His Excellency 
|o phc tlonorabU J, Duncan. 



I 77 1 

" I have palJ the greatcft and moft minute at* 
tenrion, to die vari his mcchods invcnced for fend- 
ing vaccine matcrr in every form; they are all inn- 
per^efl except one or two. The Ivory lancets of 
niv irii^ention fecm to be a very valuable improve- 
ment, for which'! have already received innume- 
rable thinks frorri the mod cnlightned vaccinators. 
One metho'.i al )ne is infallible and precifeiy as 
cafyforhiin who receives the virus, asifhchadto 
take it in a treih pullule. I have dcfcribed it ac- 
curately p. 97. and 98, of my Second Edition, 
1 mufl: only add that fome further experience has 
tau.^;it me, that whenever a child en ijwed with 
patience can be found, ic is no: fo ditBcuk as I 
once chougnt; thit one or two pullules are fuf* 
ficient t) 611 the Chupie," but only that the 
o jeration is tedious, as it la(U more than half an 
h )ur. In order to inpregnare this charpi^ well, 
the p'jlUije (houU be opened by three or four punc- 
tures, becaufe it is not like that of the fmall-pox, 
a fingle bladder, from which all the matter flows 
from one pun'liure, but an aggregation of a great 
number of cells, covered wi:h one pellicule, which 
reprefent the fame order as a rafp or mulberry hue 
tranlVerfcly. By one punflure therefore, one On- 
gle ceil is emptied. A very fmali quantity of 

cbarpic 



t 78 ] 

charpic about the fizeofhalf a green pea, fliould 
belaid fiat on the open ceils, and the fluid is very 
quickly pumped> when one bit of charpie is im- 
pregnated, or rather facurated; another fhould be 
laid on till it fills the concavity of one of the glafifcs. 
1 he two glafles well tied up, and dipped in a fo- 
lution of fcaling wax in fpiiit of wine, prevent fo 
well the acccfs of air, that no evaporation can take 
place, and the virus can be fent to any didance, 
and kept fluid any length of time. I have my* 
felf ufed fome coming from Hanover and from 
Milan, which arrived as fluid at Vienna, as v/hen 
it was put between theglific-s. I forgot to fay that 
the charpie, when impregnated fhould be transfer- 
red from the pudule to the hollow glafs with the 
f>oint of a pin, or a lancet, in order that no par- 
ticle of it rtiould be loft on the fingers," 

The vaccine matter now in our hands, has al- 
ready pafTed through many lubjecls; we cannot 
obferve any change in the regulir train of lymp- 
toms, marking the ufi»al progrefs of this difeafe, 
or in the local alfedion of the inoculated Ipot. 
Thofe fubjeds irioculatcd in June 3802, exhibited 
the fame appearances, that we at prefcnt obferve 
in our patients, labouring under the difeafe. On 
tny kft inoculating day, i had upwards of 50 fob- 



[ 79 ] 

jr&Sy with the difeafe didinflly marked as I have 
defcribed it; many of them fufFcred a good deal, 
fo much fo, that I believe they ^ould have been 
confidered as cafes of a'51:ive difcafe in Europe. 

From thefe and other circiimdances of a like 
nature, I am of opinion that we do not run any rilk, 
of finding our difeafe become milder, fo as in pro- 
cef: of lime to exhaud iticif, and fail of producing 
the necciiary confticutionai affection, or to prevent 
the inPiuence of variolous contagion, 

I have not found as far as my experience goes, 
that any caufe, or complaint fnould operate as an 
objedioo to communicating this difcafe, where wc 
are in danger from fiiiall pox. We have inoculated 
young and old, robuiland delicate, healthy and fick- 
Jy fubjedts, and numbei-s covered with herpetic, and 
pforic affections of the fkin. I have not obferved 
that any of thefe circumftances, have altered in any 
rcfpect, the appearance or progrefs of the difeafe. A 
great proportion of the natives of this ifland, are 
contlantly afHicled wich the itch, in a greater or left 
degree ; the vaccine pox has feldom altered the 
charader of this complaint. In fomc cafes the 
difeafe of the flcin has been apparendy Hibdued, by 
theprcfence of the conRicutional fymptcms attend- 

1 



[ 8o 3 

ingtlif cow pox. In general however, there does 
not appear to be any change produced, unlefs I 
liavealready mentioned, thcchildrenare negledtcd for 
fomc v/ecks, when the itchy fymptoms appear to 
gain ground. In fadt from all that we have fcen, wc 
can declare that the vaccine afftdion is never dan- 
gerours, and feldom produces, any unpleafant or 
alarming fymptom, and that no circum fiance of age, 
er even debility fhould prevent us having recourfe 
to it. I am even of opinion, that fcvcral children 
that were weakly and frequently ailing, have ac- 
q-uired renovated health and (Irength, after going 
thro* the cow pox. 

It would ill become mc to hazard an opinion oil 
many points connected with the origin and hiflory 
of this difeafe, and which have engaged the atten- 
tion of thole ingenious and I^^arned men who have 
Vvritten on this fubjedt in Europe. Here unfottu- 
natcly, alcho' the cow is held in religious veneration, 
by the great clafs of natives in India, nothing as far 
as wc can find our, like the difeafe of Jenner is 
known, which is probably confined to particular dif- 
trids even in England, and depends on caufes 
which wc may never be able to explain. Any theory 
on thisfubjccl however, ought not materially to in- 
tercd us, our bufmefs is with the inoculated puf^ule ; 

and 



E 8t ] 

and as Dr. Jcnner has pointed out to mankind, thp 
value of fo unexpedlcd, and i'o valuable a dilcovcry^ 
and as it is fo fully dcmondrated that we arc in pof- 
fcfTion of the genuine difeafe, which wc find occafion.g 
little inconveniency to the pati-^nc, and fccures for ever 
from die fmall pox J we have cnly to guard uica 
care fo valuable a blciTing, for if once loft, wc ma/ 
not cafily recover it. 

The inociilated frnall-pox in Europe, from every 
tcftimony, appears a much mikier diltafe ihaa 
what it proves to be in this part of ludh; very fc^v 
unfortunate terminations occur there; In India or 
more properly fpeaking in this I (land, we have nc: 
been fb fortunate. It is the opinion of the mofb 
eminent and difcernir.g of our medical men ac 
this place, that one cafjaky rakes place in 40 or 
50 cafes, including the fcquelas of the dilbrder, 
which are, blindnefs, fuppuracions' about the 
jcr'mts, difeafed livers, dyftntery and afrcclions of 
the mefcnteric glands, dyfpncea, &c. ic has been 
fufpe^lcd that a certain ciifs of tlx difeaies of 
Europe have become more prevalent Hncc the t^e- 
neral praflicc of inoculation for the fmail-pox; 
and it fecms to be admi:red that fn cafes where 
there cxids a tendency to fcrophuia, the variolotjs 
.matter frw^uendy gives afliviLV :o the l?:rnr dii- 



C S2 1 

thcfls, and frequently produces lamcnefs, or Jays 
the foundation of fatal difcafes. 

Thofc mod averfeto the general introduaion of 
the vaccine, as a fubfticure for variolous inocula- 
tion, do not apprehend the occurrence of any of 
thofe evi!s> as a confequence of" the vaccine difeafe; 
this circumdance if no other ground of preference 
were claimed, is furely no immaterial, or triffling 
matter, and places in a ftrong and juft point of view 
the importance of Dr. Jcnner's difcovery, v^hich 
bids fair to mitigate the ravages, if not foon to extin- 
guifli entirely, the prevalence of a loathfomc and 
fual difeafe, which in every country, and under 
every circumftance, has ever proved one of the 
treated evils which has afiiidled humanity. 

The following communications prove that the 
vaccine difeafe fo fuccefsfully eflablifhed through- 
out Indi?, pofTefics the fame v/onderful powers in 
Hiielding the liuman conftiuuion from the fmiall pox, 
that it has beea found to do in Europe, 

Extras of a letter to Dr, Anderjcn Fort St, George 
from Mr, Carnie jaffncjpatam, O^ober 20th, 
I 8o2. 

" You will be happy to hear that fix of the 
pcribns that had gone thro' the cow pox at this 

place 



r 83 ] 

place, have been inoculated with a£l!ve matter from 
different imall pox patienis, and that all of them 
refifted its adion on the fyftem. I therefore think 
that I may now venture to pronounce with certainty, 
that we have got upon the ifland, ihat genuine mild 
difeafe, for the introdudion of which the world are 
fo much indebted to Dr. Jenner." 

EiitraB of a letter from Gilbert HaU Efq. Surgecn of 
His Majejiy's Malay Regiment dated ■Jrincomulles 
November Gth, 1802. 

" I have much pleafure in dlfcharging what I 
conceive to be my duty, by acquainting you that we 
have lately put the virtues of the vaccine difeafe, now 
eftablifned on this ifland, to the lafl tefl", by the moH:, 
interelling experimenf, of inoculating fubjeds who 
had paiTed thro' it, wiih variolous matter, and of the 
refult anfvvering our mofi fangcine expectation. 

On the 24th ultimo being informed by a native 
Dodor that there was a patient in the neighbour- 
hood, a young man labouring under the natural 
fmall pox in the eighth, or ninth day of the difeafe, 
1 loll not a moment in embracing fo favorable an 
opportunity, but taking with rr?e two young heakhy 
fubjecls a boy and a girl, the former about ten, 
and the later about fourteen years old, both of whom 
having been inoculated v^idi the vaccine maccer 

neaily 



C H 3 

nearly a month beforCj had completely pa^fed thro" 
that difeafe with all its characceridic marks, icnme- 
diatcly went and vifited hiin. 

I found him in a fo^all hut, extenf!ed on a cott, 
having his body ahnoft entirely covered with the 
fmall Pox eriiption-r-rhe difeafc however did not 
appear to be of the malignant kind, the puftules 
I5cing very diQincll and well filk-d, the matter, was 
thin and of a yellow tinge, and I had every rcafon 
to fuppofe, it was in a fui'licicntly adive ftate to 
communicate the diforder. 

From this patient, the two fubjeds I had brought 
VJiih me, were immediately inoculated in the pre- 
fcpce of a number of fpectators, in an open area, to 
whom being at the ti;ne pretty confidant of fuccclbj 
I cx[;lair.ed thro' an interpreter, the nature and caufc 
of tins experiuicrit. 

Thiols novv the 13th day of inoculation, & 1 am 
happy to inform you, that no eruption, or any other 
difagreeable or unplealant fv'mptom, has taken place 
in either of thefe fabjects, to throw the finalleil dif- 
credit on this inellim.able difcovery. 

J liave likev.'ife to acquaint you, that fimilar e?:- 

perimenishave been m^ide by Mr.Orr of Colombo, 

v.'ic h the fame facccfs, thcfe no doubt will tend not 

Onl/ 



[ 85 1 

onlv to overcome all the fcruples which the natives 
might have entertained, againft the reception of this 
bieffing. hutalp) induce them to fubmit to a repe- 
tition of lurh experiments vvhcn necefTiry, to con- 
vince the ignorant and bigotccd of its efficacy ia 
prricrvnig tncm from chat foul contagion of the fmall 
poK, from which the nvuive inhabicancs of this iiland 
ic3 particular, have n;oll frvertly luffcred." 

Extract from a Letter publijbed in Ceylon Govern-- 
went Kjuzetie^ November ^oth i3o2, by -Ihomas 
Chriftie, I Jq. Mddical Superintendent Geneva!, 
i he cx^erim^nc of making perfbns who had 
been vaccinated, Oeep with paticnci labouring un- 
der fmali-pox, has been lately repi-aicd at Jaffna- 
parnam with the l^imc fucccfs as at Columbo, and 
the ruhfcqueni: inoculation with variolous matter 
con inues to be occafionally pra^tifed, at the dif- 
ferent Rations on the IQand, without producing any 
difeale. 

The proofs of the preventative pov/er of the 
cow-pox on this Ifiand, are therefore now more 
than fufficient to fatisfy every reafonable mind^ and 
I am happy to fay that the inhabitants here of ail 
ranks, defc.'iptions, and religions, place the utmofb 
(Confidence in its efficacy. 

Upwards 



t S6 ] 

Upwards of two thoufand perions, have been in* 
oculated with cow-pox by Mr. Orr alone, and 
the number of people vaccinated throughout the 
Iflandjis certainly not lefs than ten thoufand. Of 
thefe above fix thoufand have been inaculaced in the 
Columbo dillrid, and the goad cIrTcds of the intro- 
dudion of the cow-pox are very evident in the 
Pettah of this place, vvhere faiail-pox is becoming 
niuch lefs prevalent. 

Judging from our pad fuccefs, and the great 
numbers who daily croud to us for the purpofe of 
being inoculated, we may indulge well grounded 
hopes, that the vaccine inoculation will very foon 
hccomc almoll: general here, and that the fmjall- 
pox contagion will ere long, be expelled for ever 
from this Ifland, 

Doctor Pearfon, who next to the immortal Jen- 
ner, has perhaps difiinguifhed himfelf moft by 
impartial invelligation, of this fnbjedl, has recorded 
two cafes in which a fevere difcafe v/as produced, 
in confequence of theprcfcnce of Pfora, (itch) and 
as I obferve from a late work of t!^e learned Dr. 
Thornton on the fubjed: of cov;-pox, that he be- 
lieves the prefcnce of Pfora ought to form a 
ground ofexciufion to this^ or any other inoculation^ 
it may be of importance to mention, that from the 

great 



[ 87 ] 

gr<fat prevalence of this complaint amongft the na- 
tives of India, we lliould have been under the ne- 
ccfTicy of excluding a very great proportion of the 
mafs of this people, from the benefits of this dif- 
covery, unlefs we had ventured to pradtife vaccine 
inoculation, even in cafes where a confiderablc deg-. 
ree of Pfora exifted. 

We have accordingly Inoculated a great many 
people afFeded with Pfora, and I an?» happy to 
fay, that I have not hitherto experienced any con- 
fiderable inconvenience, from extending the prac- 
tice to patients of thisdefcription, although a cieaa 
part of the flcin ought always to be chofen in thefc 
cafes, as the vaccine puftule, from being fcratched, 
is ape to degenerate into a fimple ulceration." 

ExtraEi of a Letter from A, Kennedy y Efq. Bydera^ 
had, Nov€mbe7 lotb 1802, to Dr, Anderjon Fort 

St. George. 

" On the 27th ultimo, I wrote you that I had 
that day inoculated with frefh variolous matter, 
five children whom I had formerly vaccinated. I 
have now the pleafure to tranfmit you the notes 1 
made, of the appearances which took place on the 
arms of thofe, cn whom the variolous matter pro- 
duced topical adion, 

Oa 



[ 88 ] 

On two of them you will obfcr^e that it had no 
efFed whatever, not one of thcfii have had the 
fmallcfl: degree of fici^nefs or conllitucional derange- 
ment, nor even a fingle fpot or appearance of 
eruption is very certainj and from the frclhnefs of 
the matter with which they were inoculated, and 
the care taken ro inferc it, 1 a.n i iclinr J to think 
it equally certain, that had thcfc children not pre- 
vioufly had the genuine vaccine difcafc, fome one 
or ether of themj or mod probably che whole five, 
would have had the fmall pox." 



To rte EmTORofthe BOMBAY COURIER- 
November 2^th 1802. 

It will give fatisfaClion to the publick, to leara 
that Anna Duflhall (the firfb Child that had theCow- 
pox in India) h\% been inoculated wich the matter 
of fmall pox and has refilled its adion. 

Mr. Kennedy was fo good as to fend m? from 
Hyderabad fome variolous matter on thread, wich 
which Dr. Kcir and myfelf inoculated Anna in two 
places, very near to each other* in^ each arm. The 
Cuticle v^'as divided, and a thread of about the lenpth 
cf one quarter of an inch was carefully placed ia 
each of the four incifions. The threads were afcer- 
v,'i.rd3 well lecurcd by plaifter and bandages^ This 

was 



[ ^ 1 

r/as done on the 5th of this month. On the 4th 
day after inoculation, the arms were examined, one 
was then quite well; but the other had inflamccj 
and fcftcred* 

The fore on her arm is ftill unhealed, and almoft 
as large as a rupee. She is in perfeclly good hcalch, 
nor has flie been ill for a moment, fince fhe was 
inoculated on the 5th inftant. 

I muft fuppofe that this angry fore on the arm, 
arifes from the matter of the fmall pox, an:l aiforda 
a proof of it's adivity. 

It would perhaps have been Hill more fatisfafloryp- 
if the inoculation had been perfoimed with matter 
in a perfectly recent flate, but in order to gee matter 
in fuch a condition, I muft, in the firtl inftance, have 
communicated the difeafe to a fubje£t who never 
had had the fmall pox. 1 did not think myfelf juf- 
tined in producing fuch a difeafe in this populous 
Ifland, which for fo many months pafl has been 
exempted from it. If once begun I did not know 
when it might ftop, nor what mifcry it might pro-* 
duce; with fuch a profpe6t it is impoffibJe to jufti- 
fy an experiment like ibis, however important it's 
objed may be, I had every rqafon £0 believe diag 



C 90 1 

no ill could a rife from inoculating this child with 
variolous matter, who had already undergone the 
vaccine dikafe. 

It is well known that Anna Duflhall is the only 
one that took the vaccine difeafe, of all thofe that 
were inoculated wiih the matter from Buflbrah, and 
her fecQrity from the fmall pox^ is a proof that the 
Cow-pox of India, is of the genuine kind. From 
Anno, alone, the vaccine virus of this Country was 
derived; fne is the mother of all our poifon, the 
beneficent Medea of India/' 

HELENUS SCOTT. 



The foregoing account proves the value of the 
difeafe originally communicated to Anna Dufthall, 
and the annexed Extract of a letter alfo publiilied 
in the Bombay Courier January 8th 1803, fhows 
that our difcafe had not degenerated, and proves its 
value in preventing the fmall pox. 

" In this populous Ifland we are feldom without 
the fmall pox, or if the difeafe difappear for a fiiorc 
time, the infeftion again fliows itfclf about this fcaPja 
of the year. Of late however we have enjoyed a 
more than ufual exemption from its ravages, as the 

infedion 



[ 9' 3 

infe£lion has not appeared fince Junelall, until late- 
ly. A child from Calicut labouring under the fmall- 
pox arrived here laft month, and tlie difeafc foonap- 
pearcd in feveral places, and has enabled us to puc 
our Cow-pox to the trial.*' 

" On the 23d ultimo I inoculated eight fubjedls 
with variolous matter, and four more on the 
jday after, the matter v/as obtained on the 8th day 
of the eruption, from a fubjedl labouring under the 
natural fmall pox. The virus was carefully infer- 
ted into each fubjed in two places, the children in- 
oculated on the 23d had the difeafe in Augufl: lafi-, 
and thofe inoculated the day after in November. 
The appearances have been the fanrie in all of them; 
on the fourth day the wounds were flightly inflamed, 
on the fixch day they contained a little pus, and had 
an angry appearance i on rhe loth day the j)us was 
dried and the fcabs ready to fall offi neicher fever, 
nor erupdon, nor any indifpoficion, or condicutional 
afFe£lion, followed thefe trials." 

GEORGE KEIR. 

Extras of a Letter from Mr. Mercrombie, dated 
ArcGty December 2i 1 802. 
« I formerly mentioned, that 1 had inoculated 
fiverai children with the cow-pox matter which you 

were 



[ 92 1 

Vi/crc kind enough to fend me, in your letter of the 
aoih Odobcr. The refulc has been, that out ot 
eleven children, being all the fubjeds I could then 
procure, whom I firft inoculated with vaccine virus, 
and afterwards with the mofr adive variolous mat^ 
ter, not one cafe (liowed the fmalleil fymptom of 
the latter difeafe. Befides inoculatino; the children 
with fmall-pox matter, I had them kept continually 
in the fame houfc with a child, in whom the variola 
v/as in its highcfh perfection, and went through 
its regular courfc.'* 

Extrauf of a Letter from Mr. Gourlay^ Angarypar^ 
Gth December i 1802. 
On the loch ultimo, 1 inoculated two boys 
who had gone through ihc vaccine difeafe, (com- 
municated ro theai in Bombay loth September) 
with recent variolous matter, no other effed: was 
produced from this, than a flight degree of inflam- 
mation at the punflures, which continiied for nearly 
two days. 

I lately fclefced from among thofe, (at this (la- 
tion) who had gone through the vaccine difeafe 
in the mod fatisfaclory manner, five young men, 
5ind as many children; thefe on the morning of the 
ulcimo, 1 inoculated with xeceac variolous 

matter 



[ 93 1 

matter from a patient ia the fixth or feventh day 
of the difeafe ; no client whatever has been pro- 
duced from this. 

This trial has had a very good effe6l in con- 
vincing many of the natives here, as to the uciHcy 
of the cow-pox, which they were doubtful ofbc<. 
fore/' 

Exira5f cf a Letter from Mr, WiUlam Ord^ Ma^ 
draSy January \fi i8oj. 
" I have inoculated with variolous matter the 
two firfl: children who went through the cow-pox 
under my care, the puflule proceeded regularly for 
the firfl: four days, on the fifth it began to fade, and 
on the feventh was a dry fcab ; nothing like fever, 
or conftitutional affection of any kind was obferved, 
though the chilJren were carefully attended to all 
along; no doubt can be entertained of the adivity 
of the variolous matter made ufe of, as the perfoa 
from whom it v/as taken died of the confluent finall- 
pox; the matter I fcnt to Pondicherry and Ncliorc 
by your defire, has been tlie means of introducing 
the difeafe at thofe Rations, as 1 have been inform- 
ed by Mefirs. Stewart and Scar man, an J I will con- 
tinue to embrace every opportunity that offers of 
forwarding aflive matter to (lations where it has 
Xiot been received." Copy 



I 94 1 

Ccfy (if a Letter from Br, James Anderfon P. C. 
Madras, to Thomas Cbrifite^ Efq. Medical Sti^ 
ferintendent General^ Ceylon. 

Dear Sir, 

The Britifh name applied to the refcue of man- 
kind from dlfeafe, being now cftablifned all over 
Europe; I truft that our endeavours here mil 
likewife be crowned wich fucce/s: as the attention 
ofadminiftration affords a happy prefage. 

In Europe, where the fciences are taught by in- 
dii'ftion from fafls, a name is of little importance j 
but here, when authority is the only fource of in- 
formation, and a name direds the underftanding, 
and conceptions of the mind, things mud be ma- 
naged diiTcrently, 

From the Sancrit word, murtum, death, the Per- 
lian, murdun, Latin, mors, & Englifh, murder, feem 
to be derived ; as from the Greek a primive and ma- 
rainoto wither, the term Amaranth may have been 
taken, as well as the name of the Tui kKh Emperor 
Amurar, and it is well known that in the year 1653, 
Chriftina Queen of Sweden, held a feaft of the 
Gods where fhe prefided as Amarante, or the im- 
mortal. 



It 



[ 95 3 

It is not my intention however to iriditutc inf« 
trut'^lions, from the immaterial to the material world^ 
but merely to fay that the term amurtum, will pafs 
more currently thro* the Kingdom of Candy, the 
peninfula of India, and Hindoftan, than the vulgar 
name cow pox. 

The operative part, being as zealoufly followed 
upby the Surgeons, as their refpeflive fuuations caa 
pofllbly admit ; a name that is pleafingly familiar to 
the natives, may have its ufe ; and I have yet found 
none, that takes with them fo well as the Sanfcric 
word amurtum ; immortality ; as it prevents deatli 
from fmall pox, and is pleafing to tbem in calling 
uprecolledlions of their facred hiiiory, of this gift of 
Darawanter the prince of charity, of medicine, 
the cow Camadeva, being a perfonage in the fame 
Avater, amurtum has become the generic name for 
cows milk." 

(Signed) JAS. ANDERSON, 

FcRT St. George, 
Jan. loth, i8oj* 

Copy of a letter puhlifhed in the Ceylon Goverfimeni 
Gazette hy Thomas Chrijiie E/q, Med. Sup. Cttt^ 
Columbo January \Jly 1803. 
" As I wi(h to reft the merits of the co^ pox 

upon truth alone^ and a full and candid expofidoa 

of 



C 96 ] 

offa6ls, and am anxious to inculcate in the (Irongeft 
manner, the neceCiry of gnarding with the ucmoft 
vigilance againft the introdudion of a fpurious di- 
feafe, of attending mod carefully to the progrcfs 
and con)p}etion of the fymptoras, before granting 
a certificate of fecurity, and of perfevering in fre- 
quently fubjedting vaccinated patients to variolous 
inoculation, as the moir certain ted of a true difeafe. 
I think it my duty to publifh for general informa* 
tion throughout the ifland, two cafes which have 
come to my knowledge, fince the publication of the 
Government advertifement on this fubjedl, under 
date the 2 2d December; in which the patients have 
had fmall pox after it was conceived they had the 
cow-pox, and which had all the circumftances not 
been particularly enquired into, and confidercd, 
would have tended to invalidate the proofs of the 
preventative efficacy of the cow-pox. 

The one, an old man of fifty five years,, refident 
in the Serina Corle, had been inoculated at Columbo 
on the 29th of October with vaccine matter, and it 
appearing that he had the true difeafe, he was, on 
account of the diftance of his refidence, his infirm 
flate, and the great prefs of patients for inoculanon, 
indulged with a certificate on the 5 th of November, 
on the 8rh day of the difeafe 5 it proved however 

thas 



t S7 1 

that this had been prematurely granted, for on ex- 
pofure CO fmall pox contagion, he caught the diftafe 
tho' in a mild form. 

With refpefl to this cafe 5t may be obferved, 
that from the great age of the patient, confequenc 
flaccidity of the fkin, and thicknefs of the cuticle, 
it mud have been peculiarly difficult to dcted a 
fpurious difeafe, and that nothing but particular 
cirrumftances could juftify the granting a certificate, 
at fuch an early period of the dileafej as from ex- 
perience we have rcafon to believe, that although 
the inoculation may have taken proper efFed in the 
firfi: inftance, yet if the vificle is fcratched, or 
ocherwife injured at an early period, the fpecific ac- 
tion of the virus may be deflroyed, the pufluie de- 
generate into a fimple ulceradon, and the inocula- 
tion prove non-cffc6live. On this account 1 have 
ever recommended repeated inoculation in fuch in f- 
tances, unlefs the areola was extremdy diflincl, and 
the fever very evident ; and in cafes where there is 
only a puftule on one arm, we ought if poffiblc to 
avoid wounding ic much at an early period; even 
for thepurpofc of taking matter for inoculation. 

Too much indulgence however cannot be grant- 
ed to the Medical Gentlenjen of Columboi who an- 



t 9S 1 

xious to fl-op the progrefs of Epidemic fmall po3f, 
anJ tofacisfy the eager wifhes of the natives to fc- 
cure thcmfclvcs againft that dreadful malady, often 
laboured all day, and afcer inoculating upwards of a 
hundred people each, were fometimes obliged for 
want of time, to put off many of the people attend- 
ing for inoculation, till another day. 

In fuch circumftances it (urtly cannot appear 
furprifing, that one miftake Ihould have occurred out 
of fix thoufand cafes, but what will convince every 
perfon that this was an accidental fpurious cafe, and 
that the preventative effc6t of the cow-pox, muft 
continue unimpeached, is that the whole of this 
man's family, who were inoculated at the fame time 
with himfelf, continued to live in the houfc with him 
while he laboured under fmall pox, and flill remain 
in perfed health. 

The other cafe occurred in the perfon of a na- 
tive child of 8 months, who was inoculated in a dif- 
tant part of the Ifland, by a Gentleman who at that 
time had feenonly a few cafes of Cow-pox, no certifi- 
cate was 1 believe in this inftance granted, but there is 
no doubt that the Gentleman who inoculated this 
child, conceived it had the genume difeafe, as he 
lately fubjeclcd this patient, with four others inocu- 
lated 



I 99 ] 

lated with Cow-pox from the fame fourcc, to ino« 
culacion with variolous matter, the adion of which 
they all compleatly refifted, except the child in 
quedion, who on the 8ih day had fever, on the 9ch 
and loththere appeared about a dozen of puitulcs, 
which had all the appearance of fmall pox. A child 
who had never had either difeafe, has been inocu* 
laced with matter from thefe puQules, in ordf^r to 
afcertain the fad; but time has not yet been given 
to (how the event. 

Allowing however that this was a cafe of fmall- 
pox, it is furely more reafonable to fuppofe, that the 
child had a fpurious puftultr, the infidioua appear- 
ance of which had deceived the inoculator, than to 
doubt the preventative efficacy of the Cow-pox, af- 
ter the numerous and decifive cxperimenrs, that 
have been performed by inoculation, and exnofure 
to natural infeflion, at every confiJerable ftation 
on this Island as well as in many other parts of In- 
dia, and every part of Europe, 

The occurrence of thefe cafes however, ouf>ht 
to imprefs on the mind of every perP)n engaged in 
this purfuit, the necedicy of paying tiie greatcll pof- 
fible attention to the difcritninacin[; a[;)pc;irances of 
the difcafe, of frequently infpedling the inocularcd 

pa tie a ts. 



[ 100 1 

patl^fnts, of noting down every fymptom, and of 
repeating the inoculation where there is the fiiialleft 
ground of doubt. 

After this It is fcarcely neceflary to obferye, that 
it is impofTible for profeflional men to perform their 
duty to their patients, by affording them perfed fe- 
curity againft the fmall pox, unlcfs after inoculati- 
on, they regularly attend the inoculating Surgeon at 
the periods he defires, in order that the progrefs of 
the puftule may be carefully examined, a circum- 
flance, which I am forry to fay, has been frequent* 
]y negle6led by the natives, from a miftaken idea 
with refpeft to the fimplicity of the difeafe 5 but 
although the Cow-pox is extremely mild in its na- 
ture, it certainly requires the niceft attention and 
difcriminauon to dirtinguifh between the true and 
fpurious difeafe, particularly in Indians, in whom the 
darknefs of the fkin renders the areola, the princi- 
pal diagnoftic, much lefs diftindl, than in Europeans, 

Thefe circumflances have hitherto prevented my 
reco^nmending the vaccine inoculanon, to be intruf- 
tcd to the native Phyficians, but I have reafon to 
believe that many of chem have taken up the prac- 
tice of their own accord, particularly in the Galle 
difxiifb, where 1 aai informed by Dr. Yates, a Ban- 

dah 



dah Prieft has been pradicing vaccine inoculauoop 
with confiderable fucccfs. 

It affords mc the moll fincerc pleafure to adc}j> 
that notwithftanding the occurrence of the perverfc 
accidents above mentioned, and fome malicious 
reports ip confequence, the pradice of vaccine Ino- 
culation continues to extend throughout this Ifland, 
and that the natives in general, place the moft per- 
fect confidence in its efficacy in preventing the fmall 
pox. 

In many villages, almoft every perfon fufceptible 
of infe(5tion has been inoculated, and at Hambang- 
totte, a remote ftation which has little communica- 
tion with other parts of the Ifland, the fmall pox 
which prevailed there in Odober laft, has been ba- 
nifhed from the diftrid by the beneficial influence 
of the Cow-pox inoculation, which laftcircumftance, 
1 mud confider as arguing favorably for the fpeedy 
extirpation of the fmall pox from the Ifland of Cey« 
Ion, and the whole of India, 



Copy of a letter from Dr. Meek^ dated Cochin Fe» 
hruary i/?, 1803, 

The vaccine inoculation has fucceeded well at 
Cochin, I have inoculated 1,044 fubjeits ; I have 

puc 



[ 102 ] 

put 25 ^^^f^"^^^ the ted of variolous contagion,' 
and it is with peculiar fatisfadion I have to Hate, 
that not one of the whole has fufFcred the fmalled 
degree of fickncfs or conflitutional derangement, 
nor further afFcdlion, than a flight inflamation at the 
pundbured part, the efFeds of which completely dif- 
appeared in a very few days. 

Four ofthc children were inoculated wich thread, 
impregnated with variolous matter, fent to me by 
the Phvfician General in November laft, the only 
appearances that followed were fuch as might have 
been expeded from the introdudion of an extrane- 
ous body fuch as a piece of thread under ihe cuticle. 
Soon after ihU four more were inoculated with virus, 
in a fiill moreadlive frate, fent to me from Callicur, 
but without being followed by any fymptom of 
fmall pox. 

In order however to be more fully fatisfied as to 
the genuine nature of the difeafe amongft us, I pro* 
cured a further fjpply of variolous matter from the 
fame fource, and with ic inoculated a native child of 
two years of age, that had not had either difeafe, the 
didind fmall pox followed ; and from this fubjedt 
the remaining 17 v,/ere inoculated. The matter was 
taken freih from the arm of t!ie child, and from the 
priaiary pudule, and the virus carefully inlcrted 

with 



t 1=3 3 

with a lancet at two pundlures in each. In five of 

the fubjcdls no apparent topical affedion took place, 
but in all the others, there fuccceded more or lels 
of inflammation, but without any eruption or evident 
difeaie of the fyftem, two of the children were in- 
mates of the fame houfe with the fmall pox patient, 
and with equal impunity ; from which happy cir« 
cumftance I am perfeflly faci^ficd in my own mind, 
that the difeafe imported into this province^ is of the 
real Jennerean fort, and from the proofs thus adduc- 
ed, capable of performing the wonders it is faid to 
poflcfs. 

Owing to a miftake in arranging the flrfl: flieetr, 
the following communications explanatory of the 
exertions ufed to introduce the vaccine difeafe inta 
Bagdad and Buflbra, were prevented from appear- 
ing in their proper place. 

Extract of a Letter from the Refident at Bagdad to 
the Governor of Bombay y dated the \%ib Apil 
1802. 

I have the highefl fatisfadion in ann-ouncing, as 
my public letter of to-day to tl e Refident at Buf- 
fora will (how, the fuccefs which has attended the 
operation of vaccination ac Bagdad^ and 1 now moil 

fervently 



t 1 

fervently hope your philanthrophlc wiflies of m-i 
troducing the vaccine matter to India, arc in a fair 
way to be fulfilled. 

Letter from the Reftdent at Bagdad to Government^ 

i^th April 1802. 
To The Hon'ble JONATHAN DrNCAN, 

Prejident and Go'vernor i5fc* in Council, 
Political Department, at BOMBAY 

Hov'blk Sir, &Gentlemen> 
I beg permiflion to lay before the Hon'blc Board, 
the enclofed copy of a Letter from me to the Re^ 
fident at Buflbra, and to fubfcribc myfelf with the 
greateft rcfped, 

Hon'ble Sir & Gentlemen, 
Your moft Obedient humble Servant, 
(Signed) HARFORD JONES, 

BAGDAD,^ 
the 1 8th Apr. 1802. J 

^xtra^ of his Letter of the fame date, to the Refi* 
dent at Bujfcra. 
It is with the higheft fatisfadlion, I acquaint you> 
that by the attention and ability of Dodlor Short* 
the operation of vaccination has been performed 
with fuccefs at Bagdad, with fome matter which I 
received from Do6tor de Carro of Vienna, on the 
30th ultimo, and I have now the honor to fend you 

cxprefs. 



[ ] 

cxprcfs, vaccine matter taken yefterday from the 
arm of a child vaccinated at Bagdad. 

Your philanthropy and public fpirit will lead 
you, I am certain, to take every means for convey- 
ing this benefit to India, and to pardon my hinting 
to youj what Dodtor de Carro recommends when 
the vaccine is to be conveyed to a diftance, namely, 
that of conveying the matter as far and as much as 
pofllble by a(fluai vaccination j I Ihould prcfume, ic 
might fo happen, that fome of the Lafcars, or Se- 
poys on board the Cruifcrs you will be on the eve 
of difpatching, may never have had the finall pox, 
in which cafe, 1 think, a fucceffion of vaccination 
performed by the Surgeon on board, could not fail 
of conveying the matter in a perfefl (late to India. 
—In fault of thefe means, might it not be pofTiblc 
by gratification, to procure two or three chrillian 
children to undertake the voyage to Bombay. 

Extras of a Letter from Mr, Manefly, to Govern^ 
ment dated 26tb Jpril 1802. 
I have the honor to make a reference to the co- 
pies of a letter from Mr. Jones dated the i8th inf- 
tant, and of a letter from Mr. Milne of yefterdays 
date, on the intcrefting fubjed: of the vaccine ino- 
culation, which are contained in the Diaryj and I 

forward 



[ >o6 ] 

forward a fealed Packet from Mr. Milne, containing 
an impregnated lancet with Dr. de Carres publica- 
tion for the Hon*ble the Prefident, and I flatter my- 
felf, that there now exifis a very reafonable hope of 
the cow pox being introduced into India. 

1)05! or Mikes Letter to Mr. Manefty^ dated the 2^tb 

Jpnl 1802. 
To SAMUEL MANESTY, Esquire, 

Rejident at Biijfora, 

I have pleafure in acknowledging the receipt of 
the vaccinated materials which you fent me lafl: night, 
and beg to inform you, that I have performed the 
operadon of inoculation this morning on fix dif- 
ferent fubjc6ls, of whom, three are inhabitants, 
ofBuflbra, and three belong to the Hon'ble Com- 
pany's Brig the Viper. 

I am thus in hopes, of being able with fuch rc^ 
cent virus, to cftablifh the vaccine influence in thofc 
parts, and likewife, to enable Lieut, Beaty, with 
the inftrudions which I have gi^en him, to convey 
its happy efi^eds to India. 

I take the liberty of returning you an impregnate 
cd lancet, contained in a quill, which is covered 
with Bees wax, and alfo, return you Dodor dc 
Carros publication for tranfmiflion to the Prefidency 

—I 



[ 107 ] 

—Ifhall fmploy the opportunity of every convey^ 
ancc, in furnifhing you with frefh materials, as fooa 
as I am happy enough, to efFecl my purpofe here. 

I have the honor to be with the greateft refpeifl. 

Sir, 

Your very Obdt. Humble Servt, 
(Signed) JOHN MILNE, 

BUSSORA, 1 
the 25th April 1802. \ 

Exira^ from Mr, Maneftfs Letter to the Governor 
in Council i of the t^th of May ^ 1802. 

I have the pleafure to enclofe a Copy of a fecond 
Letter from Mr. Surgeon Milne on the fubjed of the 
vaccine inoculation, to the interefting contents of 
which, I claim your attention. 

To SAMUELMANESTY, Esquire, 

Rejldent at Bzijfora, 

Sir, 

I had the pleafure of addrelTing you lafl: on the 
a5thukimo, and have now the facisfadcion to ac- 
quaint you, that I have been fo fortunate as to pro- 
duce the vaccine afFcdion in three of the four cafes 
whom I in-oculated on the morning after you fent 
mc the materials received from Bagdad. 

Underftandin^* 



[ ic8 ] 

Underdanding, that it is your intention to dif- 
patch the Alert this evening, and that it is probable 
Hie may touch at Bufliire and Mufcat, 1 deem it 
advifeable, in addition to a frefh fupply of vaccine 
matter, which I furnifh you with for tranfmiffion to 
the Prefidency, to provide you alfo, with materials 
and inQruflions refpc(fling inoculation, which, con- 
fidering the importance of this happy difcovery, you 
will, 1 doubt not, be gratified in tranfoiicting to Mr, 
Bruce and Mr. Seton at thofc places. 

I have inoculated a boy on board the Alert, and 
lhall give Mr. Jeakes fuch information as I think 
will enable him to manage, in communicating the 
infcdlion to feme of his people who have not yet had 
the fmall pox, in fupport of the difcafe, if poffible, 
until his arrival at Bombay. 

1 fhall continue to inform you regularly of the 
progrefs of vaccinadon here, which 1 (liall employ 
every means to render fpeedily and entenfively be- 
neficial. 

I have the honor to be with the greateft refpcft. 
Sir, 

Your very Obdt, Humble Servant, 

JOHN MILNE. 

BUGSORA* 1 
the 5tii May, 1802. i True Copy, 

SAMUEL MANESTY. 

Extra^ 



[ 1 

Pxfra^ of a Letter from the Refident at "Bagdad t$ 
the Governor of Bombay y dated the "jth of Novem<* 
her 1 802. 

Doclor Short, who has been relieved by Mr. af- 
fiHrant Surgeon Hine, now proceeds to the Prefi- 
dency, and as it was principally owing to his ability 
and attention, that we were able to produce the cow 
pox at Bagdad, about which, you were fo much in- 
tereded, I hope you will pardon the liberty I take, 
in mentioning it as a circumftance meriting the at- 
tendon of the Hon'ble Board. 



^}ctra5f of the Governor of Bombay's anjwer dated 
the 22 d March 1803. 
It affords a very comfortable refleftion, that we 
have been at laft able, through your affiftance, and 
that of Lord Elgin, to propogate the vaccine di- 
feafe throughout India, as well as experimentally to 
afcertain, that it is of the very belt kind, and per- 
fedlly fccures thofe who have had it, from the fmall- 
pox — by which, the lives of millions yet unborn 
may, and mud indeed, be favcd^ and if our in- 
fluence in India, has ever entailed evils on the na- 
tives; this one important a6l of kindnefs on ouf 
part, ought to be viewed as no inconfiderable or 
inadequate compenfation. 

When 



[ no I 

Poftfcript 

When the vaccine difeafe was edabllfhcd at Bom* 
bay in June i8o2> Government at the recommen- 
dation of the Medical Board, direded that the 
important duty of keeping it up, and of furnifhing 
lupplics of matter for tranfmiffion to different fta- 
tions, fhould be entrufled to my care. 

In the difcharge of this arduous duty, I have 
occafionally experienced a great degree of difficulty 
in procuring fubjedls for fucceflive inoculation.— Of 
late however, fince the appearance of the natural 
fmall pox, the proofs of the efficacy and value of 
vaccination, have been fo numerous and fatisfac- 
tory, that the nadves of every defcription, do not 
any longer entertain doubts on the fubjeft. 

In July lad, I cftablifficd a flock of matter in the 
Fort, and another in the Country — I have one in- 
oculating day every week at each place, and I have 
carefully guarded againft mixing the two flocks of 
virus. From the uniform appearances of my pa- 
tients at both places, a confirmation is afforded of 
the difeafe having prcferved it's true, or fpecific cha- 
jauler. 

1 inoculate from 30, to 50 fubjed^s at each tlmc^ 
as well wid^iin the Fort, as in Ihc country j I alfo 

obtain 



obtain early notice of the appearance of the fmall 
pox, and by vaccinating the children near to the 
Ipot where ic had occurred, I have been enabled 
to prevent this malady from committing it's ufual 
ravages. 

The number on this ifland, that have already 
gone thro' the vaccine difeafc is very great. I hope 
however that a fufficient number of fubjcds will not 
be wanting to fccure a continuance of the bleffing 
of the difcovery to this ifland, as well as to enable 
me to afford fupplies to diftant ftations, where the 
difcafe may be loft, 

G. K, 

BOMBAY, 
March 31ft. 1^03, 



FINIS. 



MED. CHIR. SOC, 



I 

Keir 
1803